Types of Fracking and Mining

Nate Thompson, Austin Trimble, and Rostyslav Ivanov

Types of Mining

The two types of mining are surface mining and subsurface mining. Surface mining occurs at the surface, while subsurface mining happens below the surface.

Surface Mining

Surface mining, includes strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining. Surface mining is the removal of mineral deposits on the surface. Surface mining destroys landscapes, vegetation, habitat, and topsoil.

The types of surface mining are:

Strip: Strip mining is mining the seam of mineral, by first removing a strip of overlying strip or rock.

Open pit: Cutting or taking out a chunk of the surface to expose and mine the ore.

Mountain top removal: The process of removing the summit of a mountain to get to the coal seams of the mountain.

Subsurface Mining

Subsurface mining is mining that occurs blow the surface of the Earth. Subsurface mining produce large amounts of environmentally hazardous acid and mine drainage. Sub surface mines don't create visible changes in the landscape, that surface mining operations do.

The types of subsurface mining are-

Slope: A sloping shaft travels downward horizontally to get to resources.

Drift: Mining through a horizontal passage underground.

Shaft: Vertical mining from the top down.


Hydraulic fracking is the process of removing oil and gas through drilled holes in the ground. Hydraulic is the use of fluid and material to create small fractures, in a formation in order to stimulate production from new and used oil and gas wells.

The environmental impacts are:

Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Respiratory and sensory organ damage

Big image