White Blood Cells

Laura Londrigan

Funcutions and Structures of the Organelles

· Mitochondria- This organelle is where all the energy comes from. The mitochondria have two membranes and on the folds of the inner layer sugar and oxygen are bonded to make ATP which is used in the cell for energy. The mitochondrion shows the life process of metabolism.



· Vacuoles- This is proportionately smaller in this type of cell but it is used to store the cells nutrients and waste, and help increase the size of the white blood cells during growth.



· Golgi - The Golgi is used to package any macromolecules to be transported. The Golgi is layered making it possible to help the packaging.



· Lysosome- The lysosomes help digestion, which shows respiration because it produces energy from the food, and then release its content into the vacuoles. However when the contents are released uncontrollably into the white blood cells cytoplasm the cell dies. This is most important in a white blood cell because this type digests bacteria.



· Peroxisomes- Also very important to the white blood cell, the peroxisome is able to break down the cell's hydrogen peroxide, which is used to kill bacteria, into oxygen and water to keep it from destroying itself with its own toxins. The peroxisomes help the cell's regulation because it helps maintain the eternal conditions.



· Secretory vesicles- This is a package (can include hormones) that is released at the surface of the cell. The secretory vescles shows excretion because the cell is removing these things through this to the outside of the cell.



· Nucleus- Unlike the red blood cell the white blood cell has a nucleus so it can carry the DNA. The DNA is similar in all the cells in the body but only certain genes are being used in a white blood cell. The nucleus also has a double membrane.



· Nucleolus- This structure is inside the nucleus and it produces ribosomes that move out through the nucleus to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.



· Cytosol- This is the inner part of the cell that contains the other organelles in a jelly like substance. The jelly like structure has protiens but is mostly water. This cytoplasm helps to determine the different type of white blood cells. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell) This is where the actual life process of metabolism accurse because of the protiens in the liquid.(http://library.thinkquest.org/25896/sub_blood/wbc.htm). Cytoplasm is the structure that consist of multipal cytosol in a cell.



· Centrolies- A centriole are nine groups of microtubules that are fused together to form a ring. Two centrolies makes up the centrosome and when it the cell undergoes reproduction, the two centrolies separate into their own cell. This and the filaments (cords that circle inside the outer edge of a cell to help circulation throughout the cell) make up the cytoskeleton.



· Smooth endoplasmic reticulum- This is a continuation of the outer nucleus' membrane and is usually used to produce hormones. It has a structure similar to the rough endoplasmic reticulum but is not spotted because it doesn't have ribosomes. However in a liver cell this can breakdown the soluble liquids and in a muscle cell the smooth endoplasmic reticulum controls how much calcium is released.



· Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- This is extremely developed in a white blood cell because it is where proteins are synthesized to help fight the bacteria. This organelle can also help transport the proteins made by the ribosomes. The ribosomes give the rough endoplasmic reticulum the texture and the rough endoplasmic reticulum is a series of tunnels that can break off to transport ribosomes. ( http://sln.fi.edu/qa97/biology/cells/cell5.html)



· Ribosome- These are made of RNA and proteins and is where the actual protein synthesis accurse because they are catalyst. Their structure contains a large subnit and a small subunit and the protien synthesis happens in between these.(http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/ribosome.html)



· Cytoskeleton- This is where regulation occurs because this helps the cell maintain its shape and the cytoskeleton shows transportation because it controls how the organelles circulate through the cells. The cytoskeleton is organized into three primary protien filamens which include, microtubules, actin filaments, and intermadiate fibers.



· Cell membrane- The cell membrane is two layers of phospholipids, which is a lipid bilayer.The cell is made of mostly lipids and some proteins (makes it possible to smell and other things like that) are present on the membrane as well. The membranes, called hydrophobic, are used to block out any unwanted water but inbetween the two layers, their tails, the hydrophilic; is compatible with the water around the cell or in the cytoplasm.



Main site used: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm



Cells Interrelated Parts

The Cell's System

As seen above (use the zoom button somewhere not quite sure where exactly to see how they are interrelated), the white blood cell has to have all its parts working together. The arrows show just a few ways on how one organelle relies on the other. For example without the peroxisome all the organelles will be destroyed, killing the cell, by hydrogen peroxide from the breakdown of the bacteria in the lysosome. In other words without the peroxisome the white blood cell would die, the same with other organelles. Also the mitochondria helps the cells sytem by being the power source to all the other organelles. The white blood cell operates as a system because the filament is able to maintian the shape of the cell and the membrane keeps water out. Without these, like the others, the cell cannot maintain its intercellular functions like producing proteins or reproducing. The white blood cell has to work as a system to fully function. Comparing to a common work place: if all but one person works or is absent, is the workplace fully functional? Obviously it would not because all components need to work together for the cell or workplace to properaly work. For the cell to survive all organelles must be working together because they are all interrelated as a system.