Rise of Dictorial Regimes in WWII
Created by Katie Heineman and Reid Buckley
Facism In Italy
Saturday, May 1st 1920 at 10:30am
in the early 1920’s, Benito mussolini established the first European fascist movement in italy. Fascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government let by a dictatorial ruler. in a fascist state, people who are controlled by the government, and any opposition is suppressed.
Rise of Facism
like other European countries, Italy experienced severe economic problems after World war 1. Inflation grew, and both industrial and agricultural workers staged strikers. Socialists spoke of revolution. The middle class began to fear a communist takeover like the one that had recently occurred in Russia. Industrial and agricultural strikes created more division. Mussolini emerged from this background of widespread unrest.
in 1920 and 1921, Mussolini formed bands of black-shirted, armed Fascist called Squadristi or Blackshirts. These bands attacked socialist offices and newpapers. they also used violence to break up strikes.
in 1922, Mussolini’s movement was growing quickly. the middle-class fear of socialism, commuism, and disorder made the Fascist increasingly attractive to many people.
The rise of Stalin
Wednesday, May 5th 1920 at 9pm
Lenin followed a policy of war communism during the civil war in Russia. the government controlled most industries and seized grain from peasants to ensure supplies for the army.
once war was over, peasants began to sabotage the communist program by hoarding food. the situation became worse when drought caused a great famine between 1920 and 1922.
Russia was exhausted. A peasant banner proclaimed “down with Lenin and horseflesh. Bring back the Czar and pork.” As leon Trotsky said, “The country, and government with it, were at the very edge of the abyss.”
In March 1921, Lenin pulled Russia from the abyss. He abande was communist in favor of his New Economic Policy (NEP). the NEP was a modified version of the old capitalist system.
In 1922, Lenin and the Communist formally created a new state called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which is also known as the USSR, or as the Soviet Union.
Lenin died in 1924. A struggle for power at once among the seven members of the Politburo a committee that had become the leading policy-making body of the communist Party. One group, held by Leon Trotsky, wants to ed the NEP and launch Russia on a path of rapid industrialization, chiefly at the expense of the peasants. another group in the Politburo rejected the idea of worldwide communist revolution. instead it wanted to focus on building a socialist state in Russia and to continue Lenin’s NEP.
These divisions were underscored by an intense personal rivalry between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. In 1924, Trotsky held the post of commissar of war. Stalin held the Bureaucratic job of party general secretary.