Peter The Great
Peter took the throne in Russia in 1682
Modernizing With Force: Peter improved education, simplified the Russian alphabet, he imported Western technology, and had academies set up for the sole purpose of mathematics, science, and engineering. He improved waterways and canals, developed mining and textile manufacturing. He also backed new trading companies. Peter had no care for those who didn't believe in the new order. He tortured and executed over 1,000 rebels after elite palace guards revolted.
Peter Expands Russia’s Borders: He created the largest standing army in Europe, built a world-class navy from scratch, and set out to extend Russian borders to the west and south.
The Great Northern War: In 1709, Peter defeated the Swedes and won territory along the Baltic Sea. The long war started in 1700 against the kingdom of Sweden, which at the time, dominated the Baltic region.
Building St. Petersburg: Since Peter earned land after the war, he built a new capital city, St. Petersburg. He asked Italian architects and artisans to design great palaces in Western style. He also planned the city’s parks and boulevards. St. Petersburg became a great symbol of Peter’s effort to forge a modern Russia.