Ch. 5 Scrapbook

Revitalizing languages and conflicts

Revitalizing Languages (Hebrew)

Hebrew used to be a language of daily activity in biblical times. It diminished in the fourth century and was retained only for Jewish religious services. Arabic then took the place of Hebrew. When Israel became an independent country in 1948, Hebrew became one of its official languages, along with Arabic. It was chosen because the Jewish population of Israel was mainly made up of refugees and migrants that came from different countries and spoke many different languages. No other language could unify the disparate culture groups in Israel, since Hebrew was in the Jewish prayers. A man named Eliezer Ben-Yehuda came up with 4,000 new Hebrew words that is related, when possible, with ancient ones.
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Revitalizing Languages (Celtic)

The Celtic language branch is very important to English-speakers because Celtic was an important language in the British Isles before the Germanic tribes invaded. It was spoken in modern-day Germany, France, northern Italy, and the British Isles. It is spoken today in remote parts of Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and on the Brittany peninsula of France. The Celtic langauage branch is divided up into two groups: Goidelic (Gaelic) and Brythonic. Only two Goidelic languages survive: Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic. Speakers of Brythonic (Cymric or Britannic) fled to Wales, Cornwall, or across the English Channel to the Britanny peninsula of France when the Germanic tribes invaded. The number of Celtic speakers declined because they lost most of their territory to speakers of other languages. The Irish weren't allowed to speak Irish in front of their English-speaking masters in the 1300s. If they spoke Irish, they would be punished. The children were encouraged by their parents to learn English so that they could get better job opportunities. Most Celtic speakers also learned either English or French, since those were the countries that conquered their land. Today, the governments of Celtic speaking countries and the surrounding countries are encouraging their people to learn one of these languages in order to preserve the language branch.