Elite Anaerobic Athlete

Chronic Adaptations to Usain Bolt

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Usain Bolt

Usain St. Leo Bolt was born on 21st of August 1986. Bolt is a Jamaican sprinter, who is regarded to be the fastest man ever. He holds both the 100m and 200m world records. He also was a part of the team that holds the world record in the 4x100m relay. Bolt is the first man to win six Olympic gold medals in sprinting, and an eight-time World Championships. Bolt attended Waldensia Primary as a child, this is where he first started sprint. He ran in the annual national primary schools meeting, and by the age of twelve bolt was the schools fastest 100m runner. Bolt made his fist world stage appearance at the 2001 IAAF World Youth Championships in Hungary, running in the 200m event. He failed to qualify for the finals but still run a personal best.

Usain Bolt's Training Session
Usain Bolt - Glen Mills Training Session

Training Methods

Short interval Training

Short interval training is where the work period is dominated by the ATP-PC energy system. The work to rest ratio is 1:6, this ratio ensures that the right energy system is been used. The main aim from this method of training is to increase PC stores, this will enable the athletes to work at their highest intensity for longer. This method of training is ideal for Bolts training due to the fact that his event is a very short and this training is short in duration therefor he is practicing similar situations to racing.

Plyometric Training

Plyometric training is to increase muscular power by first stretching a muscle and then contracting it in the shortest possible time. This is a good training method to enhance power and improve speed and agility. This is beneficial to Bolts race due to the length of the race it is important to be economical in each stride, and plyometric training increases economics of each stride. Increasing Bolts economics of his stride will enable him to use more energy in each stride to increase speed and reduce time taken to complete the event.

Chronic Adaptations to Plyometric Anaerobic Training

Cardiovascular Adaptations

Cardiac hypertrophy – this is an enlargement of the heat muscle as a result of anaerobic training.

Increased thickness of ventricular walls – this is a structural adaption from sustained anaerobic training, in occurs particularly in the left ventricle. There is no increase in the vertical cavity from this adaption that is why there is no change to stroke volume.

Muscular Adaptions

Muscle hypertrophy – through anaerobic training and stress on the muscles muscle hypertrophy occurs, this mean that’s the muscle adapts from stress to increase in size and improve its function and strength

Increased size and number of myofibrils – this is a result of muscle hypertrophy that occurred from anaerobic training. This adaption means that there are more myofibrils per muscle fiber, and increased amounts of the muscle proteins or contractile proteins such as myosin and actin myofilaments.

Increased motor-unit recruitment – an increase of the muscle size increases the motor unit recruitment and as the muscle is under more stress is recovers by becoming stronger and better therefor an adaption is increasing the motor-unit recruitment making each contraction more forcefully

Increased recruitment of fast twitch fibers – anaerobic training uses majority fast twitch muscles therefor increasing anaerobic training increases recruitment of fast twitch muscle as they are most frequently used

Increased firing rate of motor unit – fast twitch muscles have fast firing rates, therefor training anaerobically that uses fast twitch muscles increases the stress on these muscles, increasing the firing rate increases the strength and duration of muscle contractions.

Increased capacity of ATP/PC system and anaerobic glycolysis system – increases in muscle size (muscular hypertrophy) is accompanied by increased ATP/PC stored and glycogen. This is because of the increase in muscle size requires more energy and energy stores but also becomes more economical of it energy use. This also increases the quantity and activity of enzymes that breakdown and resynthesize ATP. Having more fuel and enzyme activity increases restoration of ATP, this makes that athlete faster, stronger and have more power.

Increased glycolytic capacity – this means that the rate at which glycogen can be broken down into lactic acid increases. This is because of the increases in glycogen and glycolytic enzymes. Anaerobic training athletes are able to generate greater amounts of blood lactate during maximal exercise, this is because of more glycogen and glycolytic enzymes

Increased tolerance of by-products – because of an increases in anaerobic metabolism and glycolytic capacity this increases the athletes tolerance to by-products such as lactic acid, this increases their ability to work at higher intensities for longer rather than being fatigued.

Chronic Adaptations Leading to Improved Performances

Cardiac

Increased in the thickness of the ventricle walls of the heart

Through anaerobic training Usain Bolt will have an increase in the thickness of the ventricle walls of the heart. This is a structural adaptation to the heart and it occurs particularly in the left ventricle. There is no increase in the vertical cavity from this adaption that is why there is no change to stroke volume but this results in a more forceful contraction allowing blood to pump quicker and be delivered to the working muscles. Having a more forceful contractions results in more blood been pump around the body and oxygen getting to the muscles faster. This allows Bolt to have a greater force production by the working muscles, and work at a higher intensity for longer, this will result in bolt running a faster time.

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Muscular

Increased capacity of ATP/PC system and anaerobic glycolysis system

Through anaerobic training Bolt will have an increased capacity of ATP/PC system and anaerobic glycolysis system. An increase in muscular size from anaerobic training also results in an increase in the capacity of ATP/PC stores and glycogen. This is because of the increase in muscle size requires more energy and energy stores but also becomes more economical of it energy use. This also increases the quantity and activity of enzymes that breakdown and resynthesize ATP. Having more fuel and enzyme activity increases restoration of ATP, this will make Bolt be able to have more forceful contractions within the muscles and work at a higher intensity for longer.


Increased motor-unit recruitment

Through anaerobic training and stress on the muscles muscle hypertrophy occurs, this mean that’s the muscle adapts from stress to increase in size and improve its function and strength, this increase of the muscle size increases the motor unit recruitment and as the muscle is under more stress is recovers by becoming stronger and better therefor an adaption is increasing the motor-unit recruitment making each contraction more forcefully. Bolt being able to contract more forcefully is very import due to the very short length in race, having this adaptation will enable him to perform faster and each contraction being more forceful.


Increased firing rate of motor unit

Anaerobic training uses majority fast twitch muscles therefor increasing anaerobic training increases recruitment of fast twitch muscle as they are most frequently used , fast twitch muscles have fast firing rates, therefor training anaerobically that uses fast twitch muscles increases the stress on these muscles, increasing the firing rate increases the strength and duration of muscle contractions. This will enable Bolt to run a faster time and each stride being more powerful due to the increase in force per contraction.

Bibliography

Class Notes - Ms Bower’s class notes handed out to the class, Chronic Adaptations PowerPoint notes

Sports Fitness Advisor – created by Sporting Excellence Ltd. - http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com/lactate-threshold.html

AIS- facts sheets- Sports nutrition http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/factsheets/basics/carbohydrate__how_much

Research Study - Left Ventricular Hypertrophy by Richard E. Katholi and Daniel M. Couri http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijhy/2011/495349/

Research Study - By Ting Liu Carlson, Eugene Max Peters on lactic acid fermentation.

http://www.google.com/patents/US6475759