The Periodic Table

Augusta, Tia, Caroline

Group 13

Period 2

Atomic Structure

Boron: Proton- 5 Neutron- 6 Electron- 5

Aluminum: Proton- 13 Neutron- 14 Electron- 13
Gallium: Proton- 31 Neutron- 29 Electron- 31
Indium: Proton- 49 Neutron- 66 Electron- 49
Thallium: Proton- 81 Neutron- 123 Electron- 81

Ununtrium: Proton- 113 Neutron- 171 Electron- 113
Lithium: Proton- 3 Neutron- 4 Electron-3
Beryllium: Proton-4 Neutron-5 Electron-4
Boron: Proton- 5 Neutron- 6 Electron- 5

Carbon: Proton-6 Neutron-6 Electron-6
Nitrogen: Proton-7 Neutron-7 Electron-7
Oxygen: Proton-8 Neutron-8 Electron-8
Fluorine: Proton-9 Neutron-9 Electron-9
Neon: Proton-10 Neutron-10 Electron-10

Atomic Mass

Boron: 10.81 amu
Aluminum: 26.982 amu
Gallium: 69.723 amu
Indium: 114.82 amu
Thallium: 204.38 amu

Ununtrium: 284 amu
Lithium: 6.94 amu
Beryllium: 9.0122 amu
Boron: 10.81 amu

Carbon: 12.011 amu
Nitrogen: 14.007 amu
Oxygen: 15.999 amu
Fluorine: 18.998 amu
Neon: 20.180 amu


Bonding

Boron: According to the Octet Rule, Boron should have space for 5 electrons, but it is an exception because it is a very small atom. Boron forms 3 covalent bonds.

Aluminum: Forms 5 covalent bonds

Gallium: Forms 5 covalent bonds

Indium: Forms 5 covalent bonds

Thallium: Forms 5 covalent bonds

Ununtrium: Forms 5 covalent bonds

Lithium: Forms 7 ionic bonds

Beryllium: Forms 6 ionic bonds

Boron: Forms 3 covalent bonds

Carbon: Forms 4 covalent bonds

Nitrogen: Forms 3 covalent bonds

Oxygen: Forms 2 covalent bonds

Fluorine: Forms 1 covalent bond

Neon: Forms no bonds because it already has 8 valence electrons and does not need any other element to share electrons with.

Periodic Trends: Group 13

Boron

Atomic radii: 85pm

Ionic radii: 41 pm

reactivity: mild or none

electronegativity: 2.04

ionization energy: 1st - 800.6 kJ mol-1; 2nd - 2427.1 kJ mol-1; 3rd - 3659.7 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 3

electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p1

State: black powder

Boiling point: 3727 C

Melting point: 2075 C

Boron is a mettaliod

Aluminum

atomic radii: 125 pm

ionic radii: 53.5 pm

reactivity: mild

electronegativity: 1.61

ionization energy: 1st- 577.6 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 1816.6 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 2744.7 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 3

electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1

State: silvery solid

Boiling point: 2466.85 C

Melting point: 660.32 C

Aluminum is an 'other metal'

Gallium

atomic radii: 135 pm

ionic radii: 76 pm

reactivity: mild

electronegativity: 1.81

ionization energy: 1st- 578.8 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 1979.3 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 2963 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 3

electron configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1

State: silvery- blue solid

Boiling point: 2200 C

Melting point: 29.76 C

Gallium is an 'other metal'

Indium

atomic radii: 155 pm

ionic radii: 94 pm

reactivity: mild

electronegativity: 1.78

ionization energy: 1st- 558.3 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 1820.6 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 2704.5 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 3

electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1

State: silvery- white solid

Boiling point: 2070 C

Melting point: 156.6 C

Indium is an 'other metal'

Thallium

atomic radii: 190 pm

ionic radii: 164 pm, 102.5 pm

reactivity: mild

electronegativity: 1.83

ionization energy: 1st- 589.4 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 1971 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 2878 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 3

electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1

State: silvery-gray solid

Boiling point: 1473 C

Melting point: 304 C

Thallium is an 'other metal'

Ununtrium

atomic radii:

ionic radii:

reactivity:

electronegativity:

ionization energy:

valence electrons: 3

electron configuration: [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1

state:

Boiling point:

Melting point:

Ununtrium is an 'other metal'

Periodic Trends: Period 2

Lithium

atomic radii: 145 pm

ionic radii: 90 pm

reactivity: vigorous

electronegativity: 0.98

ionization energy: 1st- 520.2 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 7298.1 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 11815.0 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 1

electron configuration: 1s2 2s1

State: silvery solid

Boiling point: 1347 C

Melting point: 180.54 C

Lithium is an alkali metal

Beryllium

atomic radii: 112 pm

ionic radii: 45 pm

reactivity: mild

electronegativity: 1.57

ionization energy: 1st- 899.5 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 1757.1 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 14848.7 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 2

electron configuration: 1s2 2s2

State: steel gray solid

Boiling point: 2469 C

Melting point: 1278 C

Beryllium is an alkali earth metal

Boron

Atomic radii: 85 pm

ionic radii: 41 pm

reactivity: mild or none

electronegativity: 2.04

ionization energy: 1st - 800.6 kJ mol-1; 2nd - 2427.1 kJ mol-1; 3rd - 3659.7 kJ mol-1

valence electrons: 3

electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p1

State: black powder

Boiling point: 3727 C

Melting point: 2075 C

Boron is a mettaliod

Carbon

Atomic radii: 70 pm

Ionic radii: none

Reactivity: mild/none

Electronegativity: 2.55

Ionization energy: 1st- 1086.5 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 2352.6 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 4620.5 kJ mol-1

Valence electrons: 4

Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p2

State: black (graphite), transparent (diamond)

Boiling point: 3825 C

Melting point: 3550 C

Carbon is a nonmetal

Nitrogen

Atomic radii: 65 pm

Ionic radii: 30 pm

Reactivity: none

Electronegativity: 3.04

Ionization energy: 1st- 1402.3 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 2856 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 4578 kJ mol-1

Valence electrons: 5

Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p3

State: gas

Boiling point: -195.8 oC

Melting point: -210.1 oC

Nitrogen is a nonmetal

Oxygen

Atomic radii: 60 pm

Ionic radii: none

Reactivity: none

Electronegativity: 3.44

Ionization energy: 1st- 1313.9 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 3388.2 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 5300.3 kJ mol-1

Valence electrons: 6

Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p4

State: gas

Boiling point: -182.9 oC

Melting point: -218.3 C

Oxygen is a nonmetal

Fluorine

Atomic radii: 50 pm

Ionic radii: 119 pm

Reactivity: vigorous

Electronegativity: 3.98

Ionization energy: 1st- 1681 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd- 3374.1 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 6050.3 kJ mol-1

Valence electrons: 7

Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p5

State: pale yellow gas

Boiling point: -188.1 C

Melting point: -219.6 C

Fluorine is a nonmetal and it is in the halogen family

Neon

Atomic radii: 38 pm

Ionic radii: none

Reactivity: none

Electronegativity:

Ionization energy: 1st- 2080.6 kJ mol-1 ; 2nd-3952.2 kJ mol-1 ; 3rd- 6121.9 kJ mol-1

Valence electrons: 8

Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6

State: colorless gas

Boiling point: -246.0 C

Melting point: -248.57 C

Neon is a nonmetal and is in the noble gas family

Works Cited

"Bond counting predicting numbers of bonds." Welcome, New Valued Customer!. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. http://www.800mainstreet.com/5/0005-002-a-covalent-oct.htm.

"Carbon." Periodic Table of Elements and Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. http://www.chemicool.com/elements/carbon.html.