# The Effect of Gender on Eyesight

## Question

Does gender have an effect on the number of years a teen has been wearing glasses or contacts?

## Hypothesis

Males between the ages of 13 and 17 attending Coppell High School in grades 9th, 10th, 11th, or 12th will have worn glasses or contacts as a necessity for a longer period of time than females with the criteria above.

## Types of Investigation

This is a comparative investigation testing if gender has an effect on the number of years a teen has been wearing glasses or contacts as a necessity.

## Parts of the Experiment

Independent Variable: Gender

Dependent Variable: Number of years using glasses or contacts

Control Group: None

Factors Held Constant: Age (13 - 17), School setting (Coppell High School), grade levels (9-12)

Experimental Group: 20 males and 20 females at Coppell High School between the ages of 13 and 17

## Analysis

According to our data, all males and females attending Coppell High School have worn glasses or contacts for about the same amount of time, meaning that gender does not have an effect on the number of years a person has spent wearing glasses or contacts. We had tested 20 males and 20 females attending Coppell High School, and all of the test subjects were between the ages of 13 and 17, ranging in grade level from 9th to 12th. 11 males and 11 females had responded that they had not ever needed glasses, which meant that our median was 0 for males and females. The amount of years had ranged from 0 to 9 years for males, and 0 to 10 years for females. the mean number of years a male would wear glasses was 2.6 years, and the females was 2.8 years. We used these averages to calculate the Standard Error of the Mean using Standard Deviation. We found that the error bars were overlapping as our SEM was approximately 0.81 for males, and approximately 0.84 for females. The overlapping of our error bars showed that there was no significant difference in our data, and that gender has no effect on the number of years an individual has worn glasses or contacts. From research it is shown the the human eye is the same for both males and females. "For Sight to be possible, retinaldehyde , which is a form of vitamin A, must chemically attach itself to rhodopsin, which is a protein found in the light detecting cells of he retina, called the photoreceptors." (http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/aug2004/nichd-12.htm). This is a reaction that all humans a capable of undergoing, meaning that being a male or a female will not hold this reaction from taking place. One theory, however disclaims our conclusion by stating that "Pregnancy in women may cause eyesight variance" (http://www.eyehealthweb.com/vision-change/). this source would predict that the hormones in women during pregnancy may cause eye problems, creating a variance in vision, concluding that women would have more affected eyesight than men, causing women to wear glasses for a longer period of time. Our theory may vary from that of eyehealthweb.com because "the best age to get pregnant is around 29.3 years old" (http://www.madeformums.com/getting-pregnant/whats-the-best-age-to-have-a-baby/32596.html), which varies dramatically from our experimental group's ages. In conclusion, however, the number of years a teen has been wearing glasses has no effect from gender.

## Conclusion

Gender has no effect on the number of years a teen individual has worn glasses. Our Hypothesis was proven wrong, as the null hypothesis was true. Our data proves that humans should not worry about a disadvantage caused by their gender.

## Sources of Inaccurcies

Our experiment, as all others, was not perfect. Some ways to improve our experiment could be to narrow down some of our constants. We could make the range of the ages down to a specific age, such as 15, so that we could get a clear understanding of the percent of an individual's life was spent wearing glasses or contacts, rather than just the number. This could greatly affect our outcomes, because, for example, if a 13 year old has worn glasses for 5 years, and a 15 year old for 7 years, in 2 years, the 13 year old will also have spent 7 years when they are 15, and that can greatly change our averages, and manipulated data. We can also add a constant. One constant we would add would be ethnicity. People of different ethnic backgrounds can have different genes effecting their eyesight. Another factor could be the amount of time spent studying or watching TV. Watching too much TV, or studying for countless hours, can strain your eyes and cause you to need glasses or contacts. One way we can assume to do this, could be to make sure that the experimental group is also in the same grade level, and are studying for the same classes, and ask them how long they study for. We should also greatly increase the experimental group. 20 males and 20 females may not be enough to estimate for over 2000 students. These are all ways that we can imrove our experiment, and get the most accurate results. Another way to get more numerical data could be to only survey those with affected eyesight.

## Bibliography

"Theory May Increase Understanding of Eye Disease, Sleep Disorders August 12, 2004 Press Release - National Institutes of Health (NIH)."U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2015.

"Vision Change." EyeHealthWeb.com. N.p., 18 Sept. 2012. Web. 08 Sept. 2015.

"What Is the Best Age to Have a Baby." Made for Mums. N.p., n.d. Web.

"Learn about the." Elisabet Tasa Vinyals. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2015.

Martin, Jennifer. "Designing a Scientific Questionare." Schoology. Jennifer Martin, n.d. Web.