Hepatitis A

By: Sarah Rashdan

Description and Causes

Hepatitis A is a liver infection (common in adults), it is mostly transmitted through the fecal-oral route, it spreads mostly through contaminated water and food, as well as from person to person.


Symptoms of Hepatitis A include, low-grade fever, a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting abdominal pain, darker shade of urine than normal, jaundice, diarrhea and "clay' colored bowel movements, and joint pain. Jaundice happens when the liver does not metabolized bilirubin (the yellow pigment formed by the breakdown of old red blood cells) the way it is supposed to. Dark brown occurs due to the presence of bile products in your urine.

Prevention and Treatments

You can avoid getting Hepatitis A by having good hygiene and getting vaccinated. If you have Hepatitis A, doctors recommend rest, adequate nutrition, and fluids. Alcohol should be avoided because it could worsen the condition of your liver.

Immune Cells

B cells produce antibodies that help in the process of killing the cell, but they have to be signaled by T Cells, which destroys the cell. T Cells are also called "Natural Killer Cells".


Hepatitis A replicates using the Lysogenic cycle because it is possible to be asymptomatic.

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