Africa and Atlantic World

Jai Sharma and Sid Vadduri


Plantations were located in the subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas. The Spanish were the first to utilize the vast expanse of fertile land to establish plantations in Hispaniola. Many of these plantations produced sugar as a cash crop. Other profitable crops included cotton, indigo, tobacco, and coffee. Tobacco was generally cultivated in the northeastern English colonies, whereas cotton was cultivated in southern regions. Coffee was more of a specialty crop than a necessity, which is why it was not one of the most integral cash crops.

Slave Resistance

Slaves resisted their masters in multiple ways. Some slaves would work at slower paces in the fields, and work well on their own gardens in order to support themselves. Another form of resistance was the attempt to escape. Slaves that attempted to escape were known as "maroons". These maroons would establish their own communities free from rule by the European settlers. The most dramatic form of resistance was slave revolts. Slaves would take up arms against their masters in violent rebellions. Saint-Domingue was one example of a successful revolt that resulted in an independence for slaves from French masters.

Social Effects

Africa suffered many lossees from the slave trade. Slave raiders significantly had an adverse effect on African tribal populations. Distortion of sex ratio came to be due to demand of physical labor.

Political Effects

Demand for slaves increased which caused conflicts to break out between European countries. Kingdom of Dahomey obtained firearms and captured slaves from neighboring unarmed societies.

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