Nicholas Moscati & Bailey Hall


Serology is the study of serum that usually pertains to blood antibody testing and analysis. This is done the check blood type and find infections, or proteins within the individuals blood. In forensic science the blood can be tested for DNA or blood type for class evidence to link an individual to a crime scene.


Blood plasma is the pale yellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells. Plasma makes up about %55 percent of the body's blood volume. It can also be used to make serums for immunity of certain pathogens


An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the harmful agent, called an antigens, via the variable region.


    In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response on the part of the host organism, though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself. In other words, an antigen is any substance that causes an immune system to produce antibodies against it.


A Cell that contains hemoglobin and can carry oxygen to the body. Also called a red blood cell. Erythrocytes are biconcave in shape, which increases the cell's surface area and facilitates the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This shape is maintained by a cytoskeleton composed of several proteins. Erythrocytes are very flexible and change shape when flowing through capillaries


ABO is the blood typing system in humans. There are four different blood type groups with each having a negative and a positive: A, B, AB, and O. Whether the blood type is positive or negative depends on the individuals Rh factor; if the have the Rh protein on their red blood cells or a lack of.


Rh factor is a protein found on red blood cells. If your blood cells have this, you are Rh positive and if they do not you are Rh negative


White blood cells, also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow.


Platelets help by clotting blood vessel injuries to stop leading from occurring. They do not have a nucleus and are created in the bone marrow.


Hemoglobin is the protein molecule that carries oxygen from the the lungs an gives pigmentation to the red blood cells.

Blood Factors

There are thirteen blood clotting factors, all of these combine to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. If one of these factors is low or missing it causes complications with blood clotting and is called hemophilia.


Serum is an amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates. This can be used to make others immune to certain pathogens. It contains all the proteins and antibodies of blood without the actual clotting cells, and red or white blood cells