Long term effects of exercise
Musculoskeletal, Energy, Cardiovascular & Repiratory Systems
Long term effects on the Musculoskeletal System
When you exercise the musculoskeletal system, there are long term effects that exercise has on it. The most obvious effect is that it will improve muscular strength or hypertrophy which is where there is an increase in proteins in the muscles so that it can contract with a bigger force. Another long term effect is an increase in tendon strength which is where its flexibility and strength will improve with excercise so that it can withstand greater tension forces along its length.
Another long term effect is the increase in mitochondria which benefits the muscle in a lot of ways. This means that there will be an increase in ATP supply to the muscles and the ability to store myoglobin is also increased. Another thing that benefits from Mitochondria increase is the oxidative capacity which means that the muscles ability to produce energy from oxygen during training is increased. Another long term effect is that the muscles are able to get rid of lactic acid quickly and more efficiently. This is becuase the capillary network extends which allows bigger volumes of blood to supply the muscles with oxygen and nutrients.
Adaptations to your musculoskeletal system is that with your muscles building up more mass and getting stronger, you will have more power when you compete in sport because your muscles will be getting a lot more energy to support it and with an increase in proteins as well, it makes you much stronger and you will be able to withstand bigger impacts and you have a better chance of winning challenges against opponents.
Long term effects on the energy system
Exercising will also have long term effects on the energy system. As well as an increase in the amount and size of mitochondria, there is alsoan increase to the enzymes which work inside in order to produce aerobic energy. This will have the effect that there will be increases in aerobic exercises from this benefit. Another long term effect is that when glycogen stores begin to decrease during long exercise periods, the fuel fat increases so that the athlete can last longer during exercise. Glycogen stores also increase in the muscle cell which means that you will be able to go for longer during exercise and events and also the speed of your performance will increase as well.
Adaptations to your energy system is that you will be able to compete at a good pace for all of a long distance event without a serious build up in lactic acid in your muscles because the increase in the size of mitochondria and ATP allow the muscles to keep working at a good level which makes you a better sports performer overall. It also gives you a better boost of energy in short distance events such as the 100m sprint which is anaerobic so you are not using oxygen and relying on ATP energy in your muscles. With an increase in this, you will be able to work at the high intensity for the whole 10 seconds without oxygen but with only energy to keep the muscles working which will give you good results.
Long term effects on the cardiovascular system
A long term effect of the cardiovascular system is cardiac hypertrophy which is where the heart increases in size and volume. This means that more blood will be able to pass through the heart and more waste will be being disposed off with more oxygen coming into the body. Stroke Volume will also increase after exercise which means that the blow flow increases which means for a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients. This also triggers the increase of Cardiac Output which is the amount of blood pumped through the heart in a minute. This increases as a result of training and helps you when recovering becuase more blood will be going through the heart at a time therefore getting rid of waste and bringing in oxygen.
Another long term effect of the cardiovascular system is capillarisation which is where aerobic exercise can increase the number of caparies and resulting in blood flow to the muscle increasing and giving it a more efficient supply of oxygen and nutrients.
Adaptations to the cardiovascular system is that you will be able to last longer in long distance events becuase more blood is passing through your body at a faster rate which means that your muscles that are working will be getting oxygen more often so can keep working at optimum level for a longer period of time therefore improving your sports performance. It also keeps you healthier for the long term because your muscles won't get tired as quickly so you won't get worn out doing acitvities when you are older.
Long Term Effects On The Respiratory System
A long term effect on the respiratory system is an increase in minute ventilation which means that more air is going to be inhaled and exhaled by the lungs so that more oxygen will coming in for the muscles and more waste will be exiting the body as well. Another long term effect is that with the lungs growing healthier with more exercise, it will produce more alveoli which means that the oxygen diffusion rate will increase as well. This means that more oxygen will be diffused into the blood so that it will travel to the working muscles faster and therefore helping you to last longer during exercise or activities.
Adaptations to your respiratory system is that when you are playing in sport, you won't get as tired near the end of a game because more oxygen will be going into the muscles so that they will last a longer period of time which means that you will be able to perform at a good level for longer in the game which improves your sports performance as well as your fitness.