Events from 1880 to 1920

By: Emma Parks

Industrialization

Laissez-faire (Political)

Laissez-Faire loosely translates from the French, "to leave alone". It was the policy of minimum governmental interference in the economic affairs of individuals and society. Belief in Laissez-faire was a popular view in the 19 century. I am proud of this because it respects private property, gives the freedom to start your own business, and gave free markets in trade like no government price controls or excessive intervention, it also provides individuals with the drive to create wealth.
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Invention of Railroads (Economic)

The development of the Railroads in the 1800's was one of the most phenomenas of the industrial revolution. It was a faster and easier way to transport people and goods. It not only helped the lives of everyday people but helped troops in wars by transporting large numbers of troops and heavy artillery over long distance. for example it helped the North win the American Civil war. I am proud of this invention because it made shipping more trouble-free, it was one of the inventions that i think helped society most.
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Invention of Telegraph (Social/Cultural)

The telegraph was the first form of communication that could be sent a great distance and was a landmark in human history. The first electrical telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse. It helped dramatically in wars and shaped the way we communicate today. During World War 2 the telegraph system was used extensively with the troops and their leaders as a way to communicate. Post offices also used this as a way to deliver and send messages. Back then long distance communication depended on the telegraph. I am proud of this invention because it saved lives in wars, developed the way we communicate, and overall had a positive effect contributing to the Industrialization.
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Immigration

The Chinese Exclusion Act (Political)

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the first significant law, restricting immigrants into the United States. It was started in response to economic fears, especially on the West coast. It was signed into law on May 6, 1882, by President Chester A. Arthur, effectively halting Chinese immigration for 10 years. I am ashamed of this because it was a unnecessary and racist act.
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Pull Factors (Economic)

Pull factors are reasons or actions that attracted immigrants to the United States. Some examples are like more land, freedom of religion, better jobs, and economic opportunities. Many immigrants left their homes to come to the U.S for a better life. I am proud of the pull factors the U.S has to show for, they create a better environment for immigrant then their past homes.
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Americanization (Social/Cultural)

Americanization is the process of an immigrant to the United States of America becoming a person who shares American values, beliefs and customs and is assimilated into American society. Americanization is something that occurred to a lot of the immigrants that came to the U.S. We taught them our language and the way we live, changing who they are. I am proud and ashamed of this because Im glad that we are sharing the American dream but we are demolishing their culture and what defines them.
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Urbanization

Labor Unions (Political)

Labor Unions were started because working conditions were awful. Business owners did not care about anything but making money. So there were long hours, safety and sanitary issues, as well as low wage. People decided it was enough and took stand against the authority, which the authority didn't like. So during these labor movements, workers and business owners were feuding over these working conditions, they fought to find a common ground on which they both could agree. So the government gained in controlling union activities. The strikers called for reform within the workplace. I am proud of this because the people were trying to stand up for their deserved and basic rights.
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Political Machines (Economic)

They were full of dishonest politicians who had two main goals. One to get their groups own candidates elected to all of the top jobs in the city government. Also once in control of the city government, use that power to make the leaders of the organization rich. The top man in political machine was called city "boss". The most famous example was William M. Tweed, who head control on New York's city government. I am ashamed of this because is was morally incorrect and cheated.
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Range Wars (Social/Cultural)

Range Wars were a type of armed conflict which occurs in stock-rearing societies. When barb wire was invented, it really helped out with organizing peoples land territory and keeping their cattle locked in. People would come on their land and try to steal their cattle but the owners wouldn't let that happen. So a range war would then occur, both parties would then shoot to the death. I am ashamed of this because there could of been a better way to handle the situation.
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Progressivism

Jane Adams (Political)

Jane Adams started a Hull house in Chicago in 1889. It offered services, libraries, classes, and employment. It did really well and hull house grew to encompass 13 buildings. Eventually reformers initiated programs in the hull house to address, poor working conditions, low wages, malnutrition, low wages, poor sanitation, and a ton of other pressing problems. These reformers pressed local and later state governments to pass reform legislation, these women convinced Illinois child labor laws, compulsory education laws, and laws protecting children. Eventually they turned their attention to national problems. I am proud of this because our women stood up and fought for fair treatment and what was right.
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Monopolies (Economic)

The definition of 'Monopoly' A situation in which a single company or group owns all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service. By definition, monopoly is characterized by an absence of competition, which often results in high prices and inferior products. An example is like Rockefeller and the oil company that he owed all the oil, and the people in America would buy it and Rockefeller will have the money from the people and the power from them. I am ashamed of this because it was a wrong and the big businesses took advantage.
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Alice Paul (Social/Cultural)

Suffragist Alice Paul dedicated her life's work to women's rights and was a key figure in the push for the 19th Amendment. At first, Paul was a member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and served as the chair of its congressional committee. Angry with NAWSA's policies, Paul left to form the more militant Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage. The group was later renamed the National Woman's Party with the goal of producing change on a federal level. I am proud of her because she knew women were equal and trying to help all women.
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Imperialism

American Anti-Imperialist League (Political)

The American Anti-Imperialist League was an organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. It included among its members such notables as Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twaine, William James, David Starr Jordan, and Samuel Gompers with George S. Boutwell, former secretary of the Treasury and Massachusetts, as its president. Im proud cause they are fighting for what they want.
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Spanish American War (Economic)

On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. As a result Spain lost its control over the remains of its overseas empire -- Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands. Proud because we won and got islands/new land.
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The Doctrine Of Imperial Right (Political)

The Doctrine of Imperial Rights was the problem that Western leaders faced and the Western intellectual community since the collapse of the Soviet Union. From the the Cold War, there was a justification for every resort to force and terror, the acts were undertaken in defense against what John F. Kennedy called “the monolithic and ruthless conspiracy”. I am ashamed of this because it was a failure.
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World War 1

Wilson 14 Points

January 8, 1918, address to congress, President Woodrow Wilson proposed a 14-point program for world peace. These points were later taken as the basis for peace negotiations at the end of the war. Some of the points included Freedom of the seas, open treaties, equality of trade, and reduction of armaments. All these points were made to help keep the nation in line and had the best intentions, that is why I am proud that Woodrow Wilson came up with these.
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Germany Pays War Referation

The Treaty of Versailles and the 1921 London Schedule of Payments required Germany to pay 132 billion gold marks (US$33 billion) in reparations to cover civilian damage caused during World War 1. This figure was divided into three categories of bonds: A, B, and C. Of these, Germany was only required to pay towards 'A' and 'B' bonds totaling 50 billion marks (US$12.5 billion). The remaining 'C' bonds, which Germany did not have to pay, were designed to deceive the Anglo-French public into believing Germany was being heavily fined and punished for the war. I am proud of this because we made them pay for what they deserved.
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Zimmerman Telegram (Social/Cultural)

A letter penned by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann. On January 16, 1917, British code breakers intercepted an encrypted message from Zimmermann intended for Heinrich von Eckardt, the German ambassador to Mexico. The missive gave the ambassador a now-famous set of instructions: if the neutral United States entered the war on the side of the Allies, Von Eckardt was to approach Mexico’s president with an offer to forge a secret wartime alliance. The Germans would provide military and financial support for a Mexican attack on the U.S, and in exchange Mexico would be free to annex “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.” Von Eckardt was told to use the Mexicans to tell the Japanese Empire to join the German cause. I am ashamed of Germany trying to hide this alliance but proud the U.S found out about it and called them out.
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