Western Civilization Final

Natassja Reed

Understand historical patterns, periods of time, and the relationships among these elements.

Australopithecines were the very first humanlike creature to walk upright. They lived around 4 million to 1 million B.C. and were found in Eastern Africa. Homo habilis was also found in Eastern Africa living around 2.5 million to 1.5 million B.C. and were the first to make stone tools. Homo erectus lived from 1.6 million to 30,000 B.C. and were the very first upright man to migrate found in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Neanderthals were found in Europe and Southwest Asia living from 200,000 to 30,000 B.C. and had the first ritual burials known to man. The Cro-Magnon species were found in Europe and lived from 40,000 to 8,000 B.C. and were considered the modern human and created the first types of art.


Over time human’s brains began to grow and develop new ways of learning and new ways of doing things. They all share similar characteristics, but invented new ways that benefit humans still to this day such as; language, art, pottery, and migration.

Understand how and why people create, maintain, or change systems of power, authority, and governance.

Greece used it’s power by the water. The sea was an important tool in the everyday life of a Greek. They used the sea for traveling and keeping in touch with other societies, trade, and to become skilled sailors. The land also made an impact on the power of Greece. Instead of having one government, they had small communities within each village because of the mountains that surround Greece. Traveling was difficult because of the terrain and there were not many roads and took a few days to travel. Greece did not harvest often because the ground was mostly stone, but the valley’s that could harvest only made up a fourth of the country.


Sparta and Athens governments were widely different in comparison and shows how Greece was connected in the past. Each city-state was responsible for their own money, government, and their own laws, but they all shared the same religion and language. Both Athens and Sparta had been ruled by kings and then later led to oligarchies, but Athens soon became a democracy (the United States today) for the people as Sparta remained in an oligarchy government (Soviet Union). It is important that we gain power so that there is a system and rules for all citizens, but it is also good that we lose power so that the power does not become abused.


Athens believed that the citizens should decide the laws and held meetings on the slopes of Athens where anyone could speak and this was called the Assembly. In this democracy on people over the age of 18 that were not women, foreigners, or slaves were allowed to vote. Then there was Sparta which was more of a military state and were very dedicated to their army. Men, women and children after the age of seven all were able to train to defend themselves. Their government was shared between two rules; the Assembly and the Gerousia. There were two kings and a council of 28 members. Most Spartan citizens were either Perioeci and Helots (slaves) which had to farm the land of their master and give half to them.

Understand the role of culture and cultural diffusion on the development and maintenance of societies.

Once Homo erectus began to migrate population began to grow. New tools were created and even ritual burials were made known. Archeologists are able to find what types of food each species ate, what kind of diseases were spread, how tall they were, what the people may have looked like, and how long they lived. Anthropologists study culture or people’s unique way of life. Over time each species became more developed than the next and it created Cro-Magnons who later developed more modern and intelligent human beings. Cave paintings were a useful tool in realizing that species became more intelligent and were able to communicate.
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Understand the role of individuals and groups within a society as promoters of change or the status quo.

Adolf Hitler was an outcast for most of his life and all around was a fantastic dictator. Adolf Hitler was an Austrian born citizen and rose to power in Germany as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazis. He was chancellor of Germany from 1934-1945 and initiated the second world war and the Holocaust and oversaw fascist policies which ended in many deaths. Many young people favored him ruling because he targeted a minority everyone despised and pleased his people.


Hitler served in World War one, though he was still an Austrian citizen. He was decorated for bravery and was wounded in one of the many numerous famous battles he fought in. He fought for Germany and that looked good on his resume for becoming a world leader. Hitler also served a year in prison for high treason and wrote a book that laid out a specific path for Germany pertaining to only one race of people and many people appealed to his way of thinking.
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Understand the effect of economic needs and wants on individual and group decisions.

Athens was known for it’s excellent trading skills. They mostly traveled by water to get to their destinations. Trading was an important part of life in Ancient Greece and it followed territorial expansion, an increase in population and where they moved, and innovations in transport. Goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in one part of the Mediterranean. Food, raw materials, and manufactured goods were not only made available to Greeks for the first time but the export of such classics as wine, olives, and pottery helped to spread Greek culture.


Goods which were traded within Greece between different city-states included cereals, wine, olives, figs, pulses, eels, cheese, honey, meat that mostly came from goat and sheep, tools like knives, perfumes, and fine pottery.

Understand the role of innovation on the development and interaction of societies.

During the rise of power in Germany, the Nazis used many types of modern technology. The first technique was very beneficial to the Nazis, which was the radio to communicate to a large mass of people. Secondly, Adolf Hitler was the first major world leader to communicate by airplane and used this as propaganda to get his message across to more people. Thirdly, the Nazis used famous party rallies in order to captivate more people. Hitler’s greatest tool was the ability to speak and he knew people would appeal more to his rhetoric abilities and using modern mass media. This impact was astounding on today’s society. The radio is more frequently used than ever before and rhetoric is still an important tool to be a leader of a country. For example, on of the qualities you look for in your future president is the ability to speak well to a crowd and to be able to get their message across. It sparks confidence and poise among the audience and that was exactly how Hitler had planned his success.
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Understand cause and effect relationships and other historical thinking skills in order to interpret events and issues.

The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, and cultural issue that splintered Catholic Europe. The Reformation would then cause a new modern era. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christianity. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible. The disruption triggered wars and persecutions. The Catholic Church’s delayed but forceful response to the Protestants by the Counter-Reformation as well.


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