Performance Enhancing Drugs

An Athlete Who Used PED In The Race ''Tour de France"

PED Performance Enhancing Drugs

Types of Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) are:


1. Lean Mass Builders: drives the growth of muscle and lean body mass. It also reduces body fat and the time it takes for and athlete to recover from an injury. Examples of this drug are anabolic steroids, beta-2 agonists, and various human hormones, most notably human growth hormones.


2. Stimulants: it allows the body to perform optimally by enhancing focus, energy, and aggression. Examples are caffeine,amphetamine, and methamphetamine.


3. Painkillers: allows performance beyond the usual pain threshold. Some painkillers raise your blood pressure, increasing oxygen supply to muscle cells. Painkillers used by athletes range from common over-the-counter medicines such as NSAIDS to powerful prescription narcotics.


4. Sedatives and Anxiolytics: used in sports such as archery in which require steady hands and accurate aim, also to overcome excessive nervousness or discomfort. Examples of this drug are: diazepam, propranolol, ethanol, and cannabis.


5. Blood Boosters: it increases the oxygen-carrying capacity over the individual's natural capacity. They are used in sports like cycling and Nordic skiing. EPO is one of the most likely known drugs in this class.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performance-enhancing_drugs#Types_of_performance-enhancing_drugs

History Information on Doping

Doping was Dutch word dop, which was the name of an alcoholic beverage made for grape skins used by Zulu warriors in order to enhance their prowess in battle. this term became current in the 20th century, referring to illegal drugging of racehorses.


First Times of Doping

Ancient Greek athletes used special diets and stimulating potions to fortify themselves. In the 19th century, strychnine, caffeine, cocaine, and alcohol were often used. Thomas Hicks might have been the very first person to be caught using PEDs. Thomas Hicks ran to victory in the 1904 marathon Olympics Games, in Saint Louis. He won the race with the help of raw eggs, injections of strychnine and doses of brandy administered to him during the race.


First Attempts of Stopping Athletes from Using PEDs

By the 1920s it had became clear that restriction's regarding to drug use in sports were necessary. In 1928, the IAAF became the first International Sport Federation (IF) to ban doping. Through the 1930s-1950s the increases of new doping purposes, increased the pressure for sports authorities to introduce drug testing.

In 1966 UCI (cycling) and FIFA (football) were the first IFs to introduce doping tests in their respective World Championships. The next year, International Olympic Committee (IOC) instituted its Medical Commission and set up its very first list of prohibited substances. The drug tests were first introduced at the Olympic Games in Grenoble and Mexico in 1968.

Types of punishments given to athletes who have used PEDs/ Costs

Some types of punishments would be:

  • stripped from what they have won (medals, cups, etc.)
  • banned from the game
  • sometimes may have to pay a fine

Even though there aren't many punishments, these are big ones to the athletes because they would have to lose their money, work, and the things they have won (by cheating).

Benefits

The benefits of Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) are:

  • helps the body build muscle faster
  • makes the person using it a lot stronger with less effort
  • increases muscle mass
  • gives athletes more energy
  • increases endurance
  • gives the athletes an advantage over their competitors
  • allow them to perform beyond their potential

Here is the Math!

The 2 graphs below explain doping cases in Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics.


The Summer Olympics Doping Cases graph shows:

  • the years from 1968-2012
  • the places where they were held
  • the number of drug tests taken
  • the number of doping cases reported
  • the percentage of doping cases reported
  • total


The Winter Olympics Doping Cases graph shows:

  • the years from 1968-2014 (2014 not available yet)
  • the places where they were held
  • the number of drug tests taken
  • the number of doping cases reported
  • the percentage reported
  • total


As you can see below, there are more drug tests taken in the Winter Olympics than in the Summer Olympics and there are more numbers and percentages of doping cases reported in the Summer Olympics than Winter Olympics.

Athlete who used PED: Floyd Landis

France de Tour 2006: Floyd Landis Caught Doping

Floyd Landis was the winner of the France de Tour in 2006 but then he was stripped of his title because in stage 17, he was found guilty of using PED. In stage 16, Floyd had a meltdown, causing him toe lose 10 minutes of his time. At stage 17 Floyd he went solo and passed all his teammates. After stage 17, urine sample was taken from Landis which was tested twice positive for a banned synthetic testosterone. The benefit of him using it was to make him go faster than everyone else. The International Cycling Union (ICU) stripped Floyd from his winning and the 2nd place winner, Oscar Pereiro was officially declared the winner of the 2006 "Tour de France". Floyd admits doping to clear his conscience and also spent $2 million dollars to clear his name. He also said that Lance Armstrong also used PED (which he actually did).
2006 Tour de France - Stage 17 - Floyd Landis rides away solo - Part I