All you need to know about Cells

by: Madi Werner

Eukaryopolis - The City of Animal Cells: Crash Course Biology #4

All living things are composed of cells.

Cells: the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

  • A Eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.
  • A Prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelles
1. They both have DNA as their genetic material.
2. They are both membrane bound.
3. They both have ribosomes .
4. They have similar basic metabolism .

1. Eukaryotes have a nucleus, while prokaryotes do not
2. Eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotes do not. The organelles of eukaryotes allow them to exhibit much higher levels of intracellular division of labor than is possible in prokaryotic cells.

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Eukaryotes have the following organelles.

  • Nucleus
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Golgi Complex
  • Ribosomes
  • Lysosomes
  • Vacuole
  • Cell wall
  • Centrioles
  • Cilia and Flagella

Cell reproduction is the process by which cells divide to form new cells. Each time a cell divides, it makes a copy of the chromosomes and sends it to a new cell(Mitosis).

We humans have 46 chromosomes but other species have different amounts for example gametes have 23.

The cell cycle has five phases.

1. G1- Cell grows and stores energy

2. S- DNA in cell nucleus is copied

3. G2- Cell prepares for division

4. M- Cell division through mitosis

5. Cytokinesis- Cytoplasm in the cell divides then cell moves on to reproduce again or serve a purpose