The French and English Legacies

Founding Nations of Canada

Habitants/ Seigneurs/ Voyaguers

The Habitants were Independent landowners who farmed crops in New France in the 17 and 18 centuries. They differed from hired agricultural laborers and temporary workers. Only Habitants were aloud to make small-scale fur trade while people were not aloud to make trades like volunteers and soldiers.

The Habitant have to pay the former landowner the interest if the Habitants dies his/her heirs had to be substitute both the balance and the accrued interest. It is very unlikely for a seigneur to take land because of an unpaid interest. The reason that the Habitants came to New France because

The Seigneurs used a system called the Seigneurial System, it was an institutional form of land distribution established in New France in 1627 and officially abolished in 1864 .In New France , 80 percent of the population lived in rural areas governed by this system of land distribution and occupation principle.

Voyageurs were fur traders.The fur changed over the years, in the aspect of their workers. In the 17th century, voyageurs were often known as coureur des bois. In the late 17th century, it became increasing difficult to obtain a trading licence and good on credit. Voyagers were young men hired to transport goods to trading post and they were forbidden to do any trading on their own.Until 1705, roughly 60 young men traveled on behalf of the compagnie de la post colonies as far as the post of Detroit (found 1701).Like the communate des Habitants which operated for about 15 years in 17th century, the compagnie de la post colonies(created in 1699) gave Canadians a monopoly over the fur traders.The reason the Voyagers came to New France because the king sent them to find land then claim it for France.

typed by:Lance Persaud

Filies du roi/ priests and nuns/soliders

The Filies Du Roi are unmarried women sponsored by the king to immigrate to new France between 1663 to 1673.The king's adviser minister Jean Baptiste Colbert sent the "Filies Du Roi" as an incentive for male workers who finished their contract .The french government and religious community attempted to correct the gender imbalance in the colonies.Even though the first women arrived in Canada in the 1630's only the eight hundred or who arrived in during the first 11 years of the royal government in New France were called filles Du Roi I.The first female immigrants to Canada came either with their families or as a nun.In the 17th century Marguerite Bourgeoys used the expression “Filles du Roy” on one occasion to designate the 17 “filles à marier” (marriageable women).The king gave each an allowance of 100 pounds: 10 pounds in recruitment fees, 30 pounds to gather a modest trousseau and 60 pounds for each woman’s passage fee.They were approximately 16 to 40 years old when they arrived, with an average age of 24. Between 1667 and 1672, many women (41%) were given a royal dowry of 50 livres tournois (pounds) in addition to their trousseau. Some received even higher amounts (100 or 200 pounds).However, they rose to the challenge: because of the sparse population and the wealth of food resources in their new home, they were able to have many children and to live longer than their peers who had stayed in France.The reason the Filles du roi came to new France was to marry men in New France to even out the sex ratio in New France.

Grey Nuns, the name was commonly given to the 6 Distinct Roman Catholic Religious communities of women.Then in 1737, a young widow, Madame d' Youville, formed a charitable lay association , which opened a house for the poor.Ten years later they took on management of the Hospital Genneral of Montreal from Charon Brothers.The brothers mocked the sisters as "les soeurs grises " that is "grey women" or " tispy women" in reference to Madame d' Youville's deceased bootlegger husband. In 1840 they took over the management of a hospital in st- Hyacinthe, Quebec.The reason the nuns came to New France was because they had to spread Christianity all over New France.

During the late seventeenth century, many of the English power set up local soldiers in their colonies.In the colony of New France the militia was too small to defend against a British army.The colonial government set up a new military force, called The Companies Franches de la Marine.You might think by the name that they are sea-born but they are in fact regular foot infantry.They are called Marines because the Ministry of the Marine was in charge of them.The soldiers were in charge of French colonial defense.The Companies of the Marines were established in 1622 to protect the colony as temporary soldiers and then discharged.Later on re-raised to defend French North American colonies in 1680's.The soldiers would go to war against the Iroquois later on in 1755 they were put to the test against Great Britain, their greatest enemy of all time, and the war lasted for 7 years. Early on the french won some wars but later on the french would fall to their enemy the last fight took 15 minutes although the leader of the English army General James Wolfe dies. The English still win the war and the french surrender and leave Quebec slowly but surely .The soldiers of New France came to New France to serve and protect the colony from their enemies.

typed by:Ayub Jama

English Settelement

French Settlements Answers

The french came to Canada to colonize the region fur trading New France was a colony of France 150, years and during that time,10,000 people most of whom were from France , immigrated to the area.These people were fur traders,indentured women sent by the king to help populate the colony.The french also came to Canada because of the vast wealth to be made newly Americans possibly to pay for extravagant lifestyles of nobility or the military.

Between 1534 and 1542 Jacques Cartier made three voyages across the Atlantic, claiming New France for King Francis the 1st .In the year 1535, he sailed up the st- Lawrence river and visited Aboriginal settlement at Stadacona and Hochelaga (Montreal).He spent the winter where 25 of his men died of scurvy and he returned to New France in 1536.

typed by:Ayub Jama

French Settlements Answers

The first permanent French settlement was called Port Royal, and it was settled on the site of present day Quebec. In 1620, 12 years after it was first settled, the settlement was a fur trading post, and it had just 60 colonists residing in it.Samuel De Champlain gathered enough money to send supplies and reinforcements to Port-Royal and was the one who give the name to the settlement and this took place in his second voyage.

The things that New France contributed to Canada are fishing equipment ,mines ,hemp, cloth and fur-only yielded an appreciable return, it was irregular disappointing. Another thing that New France contributed to Canada is that New France provided a religion which is called Christianity and they provided a language for Canada called French.

typed by:Lance Persaud

History of New France

video of Fort Anne

Acadian Passport - Fort Anne National Historic Site (English)