Ancient Egypt

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Nile River

The Nile River is the longest river in the world. The Nile River is 4000 miles long. The Nile River is in Africa and leads to the Mediterranean Sea. It flows south to north. The Nile helped them so much. It helped them by keeping invaders out from the cataracts The cataracts helped the Egyptian people keep invaders a lot. Cataracts made sailing very difficult to the Egyptians. The Nile River had about 6 cataracts.The Nile was so fast Invaders could not get in.

Social Hierarchy

--First on the social hierarchy is the pharaohs, pharaohs are the most important because they rule.

--The viziers helped make the new kingdom that's why they are second on the social hierarchy.

--High Priests and nobles are third because priests helped worship gods for people that done bad and nobles are rich and powerful family.

--Officials and scribes are fourth because the officials are like cops and the scribes are writers.

--Craftsmen are fifth on the social hierarchy because they just craft stuff.

-- Slaves,laborers,and peasants are last because they do like nothing.

Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta stone is something very famous. There is only 3 of them. There is only three because only three people can use them. It was found in 1799. It is called Rosetta Stone because it was found in a town called Rosetta. The Rosetta stone was found by french soldiers. The Rosetta was carved in 196 BC. The Rosetta Stone is so important because it holds a key to reading Egyptian hieroglyphics. A script made of small pictures. Hieroglyphics died out in Egypt in the 4th century. It was used in ancient Egypt for religious texts. Over time the knowledge of read

PHARAOHS

Cleopatra

Cleopatra was the second daughter of King Ptolemy X ll and the last sovereign of her dynasty,which had been founded by Alexander's general,Ptolemy , 326 BC. She came to power in 51 BC, at the age of seventeen,and was married to he eldest brother Ptolemy Xlll. He attempted to murder her and seize power for himself but she escaped safely into Syria and later returned with an army.Either Cleopatra or Ptolemy could gain a decisive advantage until the Romans entered the picture. Egypt was the largest supplier of grain to Rome and so that the grain supply was not disrupted it was vital that the country be politically stable. However, Cleopatra and Ptolemy’s struggle for power coincided with the Roman generals Pompey and Caesar’s own rivalry and, after his defeat at the battle of Pharsalus, Pompey fled to Egypt hoping to seek sanctuary. Cleopatra died by someone telling her that her husband died in war so she let a poisonous snake bit her and she died but her husband was not dead until he heard that she really died so he let himself get stabbed. Cleopatra was the last pharaoh.

Rameses 11

ameses II (right 19th dynasty), son of Seti I, was around thirty years old when he became king of Egypt – and then reigned for 67 years. He had many wives, among them some of his own near relatives, and was the father of about 111 sons and 51 daughters.As was usual in those days, the threat of foreign aggression against Egypt was always at its greatest on the ascension of a new Pharaoh. Subject kings no doubt saw it as their duty to test the resolve of a new king in Egypt. Likewise, it was incumbent on the new Pharaoh it make a display of force if he was to keep the peace during his reign. Therefore, in his fourth year as pharaoh, Rameses was fighting in Syria in a series of campaigns against the Hittites and their allies. The Hittites, however, were a very strong foe and the war lasted for twenty years.On the second campaign, Rameses found himself in some difficulties when attacking “the deceitful city of Kadesh”. This action nearly cost him his life. He had divided his army into four sections: the Amun, Ra, Ptah and Setekh divisions. Rameses himself was in the van, leading the Amon division with the Ra division about a mile and a half behind. He had decided to camp outside the city – but unknown to him, the Hittite army was hidden and waiting. They attacked and routed the Ra division as it was crossing a ford. Rameses II from the Ramesseum – his mortuary temple on the West bank at LuxorWith the chariots of the Hittites in pursuit, Ra fled in disorder – spreading panic as they went. They ran straight into the unsuspecting Amun division. With half his army in flight, Rameses found himself alone. With only his bodyguard to assist him, he was surrounded by two thousand five hundred Hittite chariots.

Religion

The Egyptians worshiped many gods other than Ptah. They had gods for almost everything like the sun, the sky, and the earth. Many gods mixed human and animal forms for example Anubis the god of dead, had a human body but a jackal's head. Other important gods.


--Re or Amon-Re the sun

-- Osiris Underworld

--Isis magic

--Horus Sky/pharaohs

--Thoth wisdom

--Jeb Earth

The Egyptian belief in the afterlife stemmed of the idea of Ka-or a person's life force. When a person died his or her Ka left the body and became a spirit. The Ka remained linked to the body. The Ka needed food to live so people put food and the belongings down in the tomb. The Egyptians believed that the pyramids were very important. The Egyptians built fantastic monuments to bury their rulers. The Egyptians first built the pyramids in the old kingdom. Many of the large pyramids are still standing. The largest one is the Great Pyramid Of Giza.