Breast Cancer

By Helen St. Cyr & Ben Allen

Definition of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is cancer cells that start in the breast, most of the time in the lining of the milk ducts or milk glands, and a tumor forms. This can spread to other parts of the body.


Figure 1 is a picture of the breast cancer awareness logo

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

  • Breast Pain

  • Lump in under arm area

  • Nipple discharge other than milk

  • Nipple Pain Or turning inward

  • Swelling of all of breast or part of

  • Skin irritation or dimpling

  • Scaliness, thickening or redness of nipple or breast tissue

  • May suffer from nausea

  • extreme fatigue

  • Lack of energy

  • Lack of appetite

  • sudden and unexplained weight loss


Figure 2 is a picture of the the symptoms of breast cancer

How Does it Impact People

Breast cancer causes a lot of physical pain and victims most likely need surgery. One form of treatment meant to shrink tumors is chemotherapy which can cause hair loss. Women and men can die from breast cancer and they are in physical pain. This cancer can also cause emotional pain from sickness and sadness from the disease.


figure 3 is a picture from the side affects of chemo therapy

How Prevalent is Breast Cancer

‘Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in american women and second most common cause of cancer death for women.’

‘One in eight women is likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime.’

Males make up about 1% of breast cancer diagnoses


figure 4 is a picture of statistics

How is it Diagnosed

  • Screenings

  • Mammograms, usually only with older women

  • Breast MRI

  • If you have a nipple discharge you can collect it and test it

  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy

  • Core needle biopsy

  • Lymph node biopsy


Figure 5 is a picture of a breast MRI

What are the Possible Causes

Some potential causes for breast cancer are genetics, bad environment, and bad lifestyle choices, but 70% of women suffering from breast cancer have no known causes. Most cancer has no known causes.


Figure 6 is a picture of more statistics

What Happens at the cellular and molecular levels

If the genes instructions somehow change the cell's growth rate which will result in cancer meaning that breast cancer is only from genetics.


Figure 7 is a picture of breast cancer in real time

What are the Treatments and Cures?

There is no known cure for breast cancer. Breast cancer can be treated with a mastectomy, which is the full removal of the breast. A lumpectomy removes the tumor and leaves the breast intact, but there is a higher risk of the cancer relapsing. Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor is also an option in most cases.


Figure 8 is a picture of surgically removing the cancer from the breast

How to Check for Breast Cancer

Make sure breasts are usual size and color.

Make sure nipples are facing the way they usually are.

put your hand over your head and check for the same things and also see if any abnormal fluid comes out.

Feel your breast while standing up with just the tips of your finger pads and repeat but while laying down.


Figure 9 is how to check for breast cancer

Works Cited

McCartney, Richard A., Tish Davidson, and Margaret Alic. "Breast cancer." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L. Longe. 5th ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2015. Science in Context. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.


Fallon, L. Fleming, and Margaret Alic. "Mastectomy." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L. Longe. 5th ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2015. Science in Context. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.


Ed. Laurie J. Fundukian. Vol. 1. 3rd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2010. p225-232. COPYRIGHT 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning


Cloe, Adam. "How Does Breast Cancer Affect the Body?"LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 16 Aug. 2013. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.


"How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?" How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?American Cancer Society, 6 Oct. 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

Ben Allen's Annotation

From the data base of Gale Group I found an article by Laurie J. Fundukian she wrote for the Gale Encyclopedia on many volumes but has not wrote her own stand alone book.The Gale Group is a very credible source because most of it is not bias and has very famous and well known people working on the articles. From what I read she is not bias nor is the data base of Gale Group. The mission statement of the database is to provide information to the public. This article however was wrote in 2010 and some of the data and facts may be different.

Helen's Annotation

My source for #1 is credible because one of the authors of the article was Dr. Margaret Alic. Margaret Alic has a PhD in molecular biology. She has written a book about women in history and science. She has worked in medical writing for more than eight years. This makes the source credible because the article was written by at least one doctor who has experience learning about what is happening on a molecular level. This source is also credible because I found the article on the Gale Science in Context database. The database's purpose is to provide credible information to everyone. This virtual encyclopedia would not be biased because it is just meant to provide facts and information, it is not promoting anything.