History Block 3
From the "Porfiriato" to the Mexican Revolution
Maderismo and the Start of the Mexican Revolution
- By the late XIX century and the early XX century several politic groups were created, wanting democratic elections; newspapers were also created for this reason.
- Mexico´s president, Porfirio Diaz, didn´t want to leave the power.
- On 1909, Francisco I. Madero created a political party against Porfirio Diaz, named "Partido Nacional Antirreeleccionista."
- Francisco I. Madero became a candidate for the 1910 elections, and he convinced most of the people to vote for him.
- Díaz got angry, so he sent Madero to jail to scare the people.
- Díaz won again the elections because the free vote wasn´t allowed.
- Madero created the "Plan de San Luis" demanding the situation, after he escaped the jail.
- This made Chihuahua (Francisco Villa and Pascual Orozco), Puebla (Aquiles and Máximo and Carmen Serdán), and Morelos (Emiliano Zapata) rise and fight against the government.
- In 1911, many people were fighting against the government in many regions.
- And in May of that year, Díaz resigned the power and moved to another country.
- The elections were made and Madero won and became the president of Mexico.
- Madero tried to do his best in goberning Mexico, but he had faced some problems.
- Some of Madero´s supporters got angry with him because he didn´t answered questions immediately about social demands.
- Also, many more people weren´t too happy with Madero.
- In February of 1913 a group of militaries from the United States´ ambassador attacked the government in Mexico City.
- This was 10 days long, and in that 10 days, many people died; this is why it was called the "Tragic Ten" (la Decena Trágica).
- The general Victoriano Huerta and some of his men killed Madero and José María Pino Suárez (vicepresident). After that, Huerta became the president.
- So the gobernor of Coahuila, Venustiano Carranza, made the "Plan de Guadalupe", because Huerta didn´t respect the Constitution, and the Constitution needs respect.
- Also, this included Carranza becoming the first chief of the constitutional army.
Sufragio efectivo, no reelección.
Sufragio efectivo, no reelección, 1968, Juan O´ Gorman, Museo Nacional de Historia.
Francisco I. Madero.
Francisco I. Madero (1873-1913).
Asesinato de Madero.
F. Deni, Asesinato de Madero, 1913, Museo Nacional de Historia.
The development of the armed movement and proposals for revolutionary leaders : Zapata , Villa , Carranza and Obregón
- Revolutionary groups, during the revolution, in different regions of the country, fought with different plans.
- The regions were organized by different leaders, such as: Emiliano Zapata, Venustiano Carranza, Francisco Villa, and Álvaro Obregón; each one of them had its own demands.
- Zapata´s group wanted the farmers and peasants to have their land back in the south; this is called the "Plan de Ayala."
- Villa´s group wanted the same, but in the north. Villa made the General Land Law; it meant that the land should be distributed fairly.
- Carranza became the main revolutionary leader after Madero died.
- In September of 1916, Carranza and a Gongress of Queretaro created a new Constitution help the industry and the education.
- Obregón wanted Mexico to be a modern and growing country, so he supported Carranza, and he joined the constitutional army.
- Carranza, Obregón, Zapata, and Villa were against Victoriano Huerta being the president.
- This is why Huerta left the country, and Carranza became the president.
- But many revolutionary leaders didn´t liked Carranza being the president, so they named Eulalio Gutiérrez president, in a meeteing in Aguascalientes.
- So the revolutionaries were divided into 2 parties: the Carrancistas, and the Villistas and Zapatistas.
- Obregón (Carrancista) leaded the constitutional army very good, so in 1915, the Carrancistas won many important battles to the Villistas and Zapatistas.
- The ideas of the social reform were reflected in the Plan Ayala and the General Land Law.