Human Impact on the Lithosphere.

Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources.

Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas)

Nonrenewable Resource.

A natural fuel formed in the geological past by matter from living organisms.

Fossil fuels are obtain by drilling or mining into the Earth's crust.

Fossil fuels are mainly used for fuels in cars or other automobiles, but have other uses. (See coal, oil, and natural gas sections.)

Fossil fuels one of the main causes for air and water pollution.



A black or dark brown rock created by plant matter and found underground.

Coal is obtained by mining underground for it.

Coal is used for things such as generators, steel production, cement manufacturing, and as liquid fuel.

When the coal is burned gases are released. The sulfur in the coal is mixed with the oxygen in the air to form sulfur dioxide which is a major source of air pollution.

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A liquid derived from petroleum and found underground.

Oil is obtained by drilling into the ground in certain areas to certain depths and pumping it out.

Oil is mostly used for fuel or a lubricant.

Oil is used as fuel in cars. As these fuels are used they released gases into the air which, like coal, is a major part in air pollution.

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Natural Gas


Flammable gas found underground that consists of methane and other hydrocarbons.

Natural Gas is located with oil underground and is obtained by drilling into the ground like oil.

Natural Gas is used for heating, cooking, electricity generation, and for fuels in cars.

Natural Gas can cause air and water pollution and can affect wildlife. Natural Gas is the fossil fuel with the lowest cause of pollution.

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Solar Energy

Renewable Resource.

Radiant energy emitted from the sun.

Solar energy is obtained by solar panels that absorb the rays.

Solar energy is used for heating and electricity in major buildings or even houses.

Solar energy can harm habitats by needing space on land or by putting hazardous materials in water.

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Hydroelectric Energy

Renewable Resource.

Energy from kinetic energy in moving water.

Hydroelectric energy is obtain from the kinetic energy in moving water in a dam.

Hydroelectric energy is used by spinning a turbine and creating electricity.

Hydroelectric energy can affect the environment by changing land or water.

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Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is an alternative source that uses the heat which radiates from the earths core to convert water into stream. The steam is then converted into electricity by binary cycle power plants. To use geothermal energy, you must be near a plate boundary so it can not be harnessed in NC.
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Wind Energy

Wind energy is harnessed through a turbine and converted into electricity. It is alternative renewable source that overall, does no harm the earth, or the ecosystem it is located in. But it can be difficult to find a susceptible area that sustains enough wind to power the turbine. Sadly, wind energy is not a consistent form of energy. In NC, wind energy is harnessed best near the coastal plains or an area with lot of undisturbed wind.
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Peat is a nonrenewable energy source that is harvested to add nutrients to soil along with other chemicals. By adding peat, the fertility of the soil is increased. Peat is also an alternative energy source, it is a form of biomass. Peat is formed when plants in swamps/bogs do not fully decay due to climatic conditions, and is uncommon in NC/USA because of the conditions in requires to form.
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Uranium is a type of nuclear energy obtained through mining. Uranium creates radioactive waste, but it creates very little pollution. Uranium is a non-renewable, alternative energy source. It is also a element on the periodic table. Nuclear energy is best used in an area near a large water source to prevent nuclear meltdowns.


Plutonium is a non renewable, alternative energy source that is obtained through mining. Plutonium creates radioactive waste, and very little pollution. Like Uranium, it is a form of nuclear energy and an element on the periodic table. Nuclear energy is best used in an area near a large water source to prevent nuclear meltdowns.


Wood is a renewable energy resource. It is obtain through harvesting (deforestation). By cutting down trees, oxygen will decrease, carbon dioxide will increase and so will global warming. Wood is an alternative source of energy.
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