Reconstruction

in Texas

Emancipation - The End of Slavery

Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863

•Freed all slaves in the Confederate States, but they ignored the order


General Gordon Granger landed in Galveston on June 19, 1865 with the Union army, and declared all Texas slaves to be free leading to the state holiday "Juneteenth"

The Freedmen’s Bureau

Created by the US Congress to help former slaves adjust to freedom

–Provided food

–Shelter

–Medicine

–Jobs

–Representation in Court

–Created first schools for African American children

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Presidential Reconstruction

Johnson’s Plan (Andrew Johnson became president after Lincoln was assassinated)


1.States had to end slavery

2.States had to declare that secession had been illegal

3.States had to cancel all war debts

4.Adult white males had to pledge loyalty to the United States in order to vote

Named Andrew J Hamilton (a Texas Unionist) as temporary governor of Texas

Actions Taken by Texas

1.The Constitution of 1866

•Cancelled all war debts and ended slavery

•Made few changes from the way the constitution was before the war

•Refused to ratify the 13th Amendment that made slavery illegal

•Denied civil rights to African American


2.New Texas leaders

•Former confederate leader James W. Throckmorton as the new Governor


3.“Black Codes”

•Assigned African Americans to 2nd class citizen status

•Marriages between Black and White was illegal

•African Americans could not vote, hold public office, or serve on juries

Reaction of the US Congress

•President Johnson agreed to accept Texas back into the Union

•Congress said NO!

–Republican controlled congress would not accept the Constitution of 1866

–Radical Republicans saw Reconstruction as a way to punish the South

–Believed that Congress not the President should be in charge of Reconstruction

•Agreed to readmit states if they adopted the 14th Amendment

–14th gave citizenship to former slaves and kept former members of the Confederacy from holding political office

–The only Southern State to approve the 14th Amendment was Tennessee (This angered Congress)

Congressional Reconstruction

Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867

1.Placed the Southern States under military rule


2.Required states to eliminate “Black Codes”


3.Required states to write new constitutions giving African Americans the right to vote (15th Amendment)

Military Rule

•South divided into 5 military districts

–Texas was in the 5th District under the command of General Philip Sheridan

–Military ran the state and Throckmorton was removed from governors office and replaced with E.M. Pease

–Registered voters who had loyal to the Union had to take “Ironclad Oath”

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Actions Taken by Texas

1.The Constitution of 1869

•Written mostly by Republicans (10 delegates were African American)

•Increased the power of state government and gave the governor a great deal of power

•Adopted 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

•Declared US Constitution the law of the land

•Established public school system

•Established system of state law enforcement

•Considered too detailed and costly to enforce

Actions Taken by Texas

Edmund J Davis elected governor of Texas in 1869


  • First Republican governor of Texas
  • Davis created a state police force that was under his direct control
  • The Texas legislature gave Davis the power to declare martial law
  • He also had the power to appoint people to fill vacant offices
  • He was not well liked by most Texans
  • The Texas Legislature raised taxes angering most Texans

Actions Taken by Texans

Ku Klux Klan is formed to:


  • Restore Democratic control in the South
  • Keep former slaves from voting



Redeemers formed


  • They opposed Edmund J Davis and wanted to save Texas from him and the Radical Republicans
  • They called his programs the Obnoxious Acts

Re-Admission to the Union

•The End of Military Rule

–On March 8, 1870 President Ulysses S Grant declared Reconstruction over in Texas

–Texas was readmitted to the Union


Democrat Richard Coke defeated Edmund J. Davis for governor, in the election of 1873

The Constitution of 1876

Texans were unhappy with the Constitution of 1869; which had been written by the Radical Republicans, so they wrote a new Constitution.

–Took a lot of power away from the governor

–Took power away from legislature by limiting when they could meet to once every two years

–Set aside land for education

–Provided for homestead and railroad grants


Constitution of 1876 is our constitution today but it has been amended over 400 times