The Collapse of the Soviet Union

Russia continues to struggle to establish democracy.

Gorbachev Moves Toward Democracy

-1985 announced the policy of Glasnost or openness

-allowed churches to open, released dissidents from prison, allowed publication by previously banned authors

-Reporters investigated and criticized officials

-People began to have some freedom

Big image

Reforming the Economy and Politics

-citizens could complain about economic problems

-1985 perestroika or economic reconstruction

-1987 Democratization was started

-election of new legislation

-Keeping communism, but reforming it

-1987 Gorbachev and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty which banned nuclear missiles with ranges of 300-3,400 miles

The Soviet Union Faces Turmoil

  • Powerful forces for democracy were building in the country so Gorbachev decided not to oppose reform.

  • Glasnost, perestroika, and democratization were all means for reform

  • The move to reform the Soviet Union ultimately led to its breakup

  • non-Russians formed a majority in the 14 Soviet republics other than Russia

  • Ethnic tensions brewed in the Soviet society. The Muslims people of the Soviet Central Asia called for religious freedom.

  • March 1990, Lithuania declared for independence

  • To try and get the back in the Soviet Union, Gorbachev ordered an economic blockade of the republic

  • January 1991, Soviet troops attacked unarmed civilians in Lithuania’s capital.

  • because of the assault in Lithuania, people looked for leadership in Boris Yeltsin.

  • In 1991, Yeltsin was elected Russian President

  • August 18th, 1991, hardliners detained Gorbachev at his vacation home on the Black Sea and forced him to resign as Soviet president

  • August 20th, hardliners ordered troops to attack the parliament building but they refused

  • August 21st, the military withdrew its forces from Moscow and Gorbachev returned to Moscow

  • this sparked anger into the communist party.

  • Gorbachev resigned as general secretary of the party.

  • in 1917, the Communist Party collapsed because of the failed coup

  • Estonia and Latvia declared their independence

  • by early December, all 15 republics declared independence.

  • Yeltsin and leaders formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

  • This was “the death” of the Soviet Union

  • On Christmas Day 1991, Gorbachev announced his resignation as president of the Soviet Union, a country that now didn’t exist.

Big image

Russia Under Boris Yeltsin

  • As president of the large Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin was now the most powerful figure in the CIS

  • Yeltsin’s goals were to reform Russian economy by using a plan called “shock therapy”

  • he lowered trade barriers, removed price controls, and ended subsidies to state-owned industries

  • In October 1993, legislators opposed to Yeltsin’s policies shut themselves inside the parliament building and ended up being bombarded by Yeltsin and he was later accused of acting as a dictator

  • War in Chechnya struck out and in 1994 Yeltsin sent russian forces to reduce the capital city to rubble

  • Yeltsin resigned in 1999 and named Vladimir Putin as acting president

Big image

Russia Under Vladimir Putin

  • In July 2002, the Kremlin said it would begin pulling some of its 80,000 troops out of Chechnya, but Russia had made and broken a promise before

  • In October 2002, Chechen rebels seized a theater in Moscow and more than 150 people died in the rescue attempt by Russian forces

  • Russia’s economic problems continued

  • A decade of change between 1992 and 2002 caused enormous social upheaval in Russia
1st & 2nd chechen war pictures.(protectors of the earth).