Viruses Vs. Cells

By: Samantha Carmean

Cells

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Plant cell: labeled

1. Cell wall

2. Cell membrane

3. Vacuole

4. Nucleus

5. Nucleolus

6. Chloroplast

7. Mitochondria

8. Cytoplasm

9. Rough ER

10. Smooth ER

11. Ribosomes

12. Golgi bodies

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Animal cell: labeled

1. Nucleus

2. Nucleolus

3. Centrioles

4. Mitochondria

5. Ribosomes

6. Lysosomes

7. Rough ER

8. Smooth ER

9. Golgi body

10. Cell membrane

11. Cytoplasm

Viruses

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Bacteriophage: Labeled

1. Capsid Head

2. DNA

3. Collar

4. Sheath

5. Baseplate

6. Spikes

7. Tail fibers

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HIV: Labeled

1. Capsid

2. Lipid bilayer membrane (envelope)

3. Reverse transcriptase Enzyme

4. Glycoprotien

5. RNA

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Influenza: labeled

1. Lipid envelope

2. Hemagglutinin

3. RNA

4. Neuraminidase

5. Capsid

6. Ion channel

(2) paths of infections: lytic & lysogenic cycle

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Lytic cycle

Generates thousands of copies of new virus very quickly


A: (absorption) Virus attaches to receptors on the host cell.

B: Viral envelope and membrane fuse, allowing the virus to enter the cell.

C: New virus DNA and proteins are synthesized.

D: New virus particles are assembled.

E: The cell lyses, or burst, and releases thousands of invective virus.


Ex: The common cold, influenza, and rabbies are all lytic viruses.

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Lysogenic Cycle

Slowly generates few copies of new virus


A: The virus attaches itself to the host cell, and the enters

B: Virus DNA incorporates into host cell DNA.

C: The virus integrates becoming prophage

D: Cell divides, each new daughter cell contains the viral DNA

After, the virus becomes active and enters the lytic cycle.


Ex: HIV, hepatitis B, chicken pox, and herpes are all lysogenic viruses.

Characteristics of life

There are 8 characteristics of life: cellular structures, metabolism, evolve, grow & develop, reproduce, homeostasis, responsiveness, DNA.


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What cells do have...

1. DNA & RNA- In the form of DNA & RNA viruses contain genetic information in order to produce more viruses.

2. Evolve- Viruses evolve to adapt to their host.


What cells don't have...

Cells do not have metabolism, cellular structures, responsiveness, they can't reproduce on their own, they don't maintain homeostasis, and they do not grow and develop. Cells do not have these things because they are not living organism, and do not need These specific characteristics.

Virus questions

1.Describe the typical structure of a virus. What is a virus made of? What biomolecules

would you find in a virus?

A virus is very small and typically contains DNA or RNA, a protien coat, and a lipid membrane. The DNA or RNA is protected by a protien coat, known as a capsid. Surrounding the capsid is the lipid membrane, known as the envelope. The biomolecules that can be found in a virus include: Protiens, and lipids.


2. Discuss the different ways viruses gain entry into a cell.

Viruses can enter the cell by membrane fusion, endocytosis, and viral penetration.

In membrane fusion the membrane is punctured and connects with the unfolding viral envelope, releasing the virus contents into the cell.

In endocytosis the host cell takes in the virus by engulfing it like a food particle.

During viral penetration the viral capsid is injected into the host cells cytoplasm.


3. Explain why the Ebola virus would not infect a tobacco plant.

Viruses are very specific, because of this the Ebola virus which infects human cells will not infect a tobacco plant.



4. Name five viruses and the type of cell that they attack.

Chicken pox- This virus attacks the skin cells.

Hepititas B- This virus attacks the liver cells, hepatocytes.

The flu- This viruses attacks epithelial cells of the nose, throat, and respiratory system.

Measles- This virus attacks respiratory cells.

Polio- This virus attacks the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cords.


5. You have been diagnosed with the flu. Explain why a doctor will not provide you

with a prescription for antibiotics in order to cure your infection.

The doctor will not provide you antibiotics, because antibiotics only treat Bacterial diseases not viruses like the flu. If prescribed antibiotics it would only allow for the virus to multiply and become worse.


6. How is it that a person can be infected with a virus such as HIV and not exhibit

symptoms?

A person can be infected by the virus and not exhibit symptoms because the virus is not far along, and has not fully infected the cell.