Chief Justice John Marshall

Supreme Court Cases

Marbury vs. Madison (1803)

“Midnight Judge” Marbury, (Federalist). Was not given the appointment by Madison, Jefferson’s Secretary of State.

Established the principle of Judicial Review,

Supreme Court could declare laws constitutional or unconstitutional

Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)

Peck purchased land that was part of the 1795 grant, and then sold it to Fletcher and when the sale was voided by the state Fletcher sued Peck for damages.

The first case in which the Supreme Court declared a law unconstitutional. Marshall attempted to extend the protection of the contract clause.

Martin vs. Hunter’s Lesse (1816)

Addressed if state courts had the power to override the Supreme Court

Related to Marbury vs. Madison, in establishing that the Supreme Court is the main power of federal law.

Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819)

It Deals with the Contract Clause.

The cause arose when the president of Dartmouth college removed by its trustees, leading to New Hampshire attempting to force the college to become a public school. Giving the trustees in the hands of the governor.

It is significant because it gave power to the federal government over the state government.

McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)

James McCulloch refused to pay a tax, so the state of Maryland sued him. They said they have the power to tax any business within their state, and the Constitution does not give the government the right to create a national bank.

Established that Congress has implied powers, and the tax made by Maryland was unconstitutional.

Cohens vs. Virginia (1821)

Two brothers were selling D.C. lottery tickets in Virginia, which violated state law. Lottery tickets from states could only be sold in that state.

The Supreme Court had the right to review state court decisions.