John F. Kennedy
Election of 1960
- Nixon of California (R), former Vice-President of 8 years under Eisenhower, VS. Massachusetts senator John F. Kennedy (D).
- Americans wondered if Kennedy would place national interest above the wishes of the pope. He ensured them of his dedication to separation of church and sate
- Nixon decided to not bash Kennedy's religion, but rather his inexperience, and stressed his own commitment against communism.
- Kennedy stressed his WWII heroisms, courage, and character. To broaden his scope, he named Democratic opponent Lyndon B. Johnson as his running mate
- He hoped to gain the south due to the fact that Johnson was from Texas.
- Kennedy was much more composed and attractive during televised debates making Nixon look bad
- Kennedy won popular vote by only 100,000 votes, 0.2% margin.
- He also won the electoral vote 303 to 219, despite Nixon winning more states.
- At age 43, Kennedy would become the youngest President in the nation's history, as well as the first Catholic to take office
The New Frontier
- "Ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country." inaugural speech.
- Enticed by Kennedy, many Americans joined the Peace Corps or volunteered to work toward social justice.
- The newest frontier, space.
- after the USSR launched Sputnik, Congress created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. was falling behind
- Kennedy challenged America to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade
- Congress responded by raising billions of dollars, and in 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human being to set foot on the moon. though kennedy never saw it his dream became reality
- Kennedy also approved Civil Rights and signed legislation to increase minimum wage and Social Security benefits
- Concern of Communism
- Special Forces and upgraded conventional forces a part of Flexible response
- gave a speech in West Berlin (recently split from communist East Berlin) and said "I am a citizen of West Berlin" Endearing himself to west Berlin
- Bay of Pigs - a group of CIA-trained Cuban were sent to Cuba in hopes of creating a revolution that would throw Fidel Castro from power. However, the mission failed, and created embarrassment for the US.
- naval quarantine of Cuba as missiles were moved there
- The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest instance of direct confrontation during the Cold War
- Supported James Meredith's attempt to enroll at the University of Mississippi
- Ordered Attorney General Robert Kennedy (brother) to protect freedom riders in the south
- Sent several thousand troops to an Alabama air base during and sped up the writing of a civil rights bill
- Integrated the University of Alabama
- guaranteed equal access to public facilities, end segregation in schools, and provide federal protection of the right to vote
- On November 22nd, 1963, while in campaigning in Dallas Kennedy was shot in the head and neck, and Texas governor John Connally was hit as well.
- Kennedy was rushed to Parkland Hospital.
- Pronounced dead at 1:00 pm.
- At 1:50 pm, Lee Harvey Oswald, alleged assassin of Kennedy, was arrested in a nearby theatre.
- Just 2 days later, when being transported from the Dallas Police headquarters, Oswald was shot and killed by local nightclub owner Jack Ruby.
- There are many theories as to who is responsible for the assassination of President Kennedy. Many conspiracies involving other shooters, the CIA, and various other ridiculous plots on taking the presidents life