ADHD

Neurological Disorders

HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

ADHD (Attention Disorder Hyperactivity Disorder) was first mentioned in 1920. British patrician Sir George Still described "an abnormal defect of moral control in children." He found that some affected children could not control their behavior the way a typical child would, but they were still intelligent.

SOME PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR THAT MAY INDICATE ADHD

  • Not being able to sit still

  • Being easily distracted
  • Rarely follow directions completely or properly.
  • Leaving seat when sitting is expected/instructed
  • Talking non-stop

  • Failing to pay attention to details and making careless mistakes

  • Behavior which puts one in danger

  • Hitting other people

HOW DOES ADHD IMPACT THE BRAIN?

Dopamine ,certain receptors in the brain that normally respond to the neurotransmitter, is not being produced at normal levels in the brain. Recent work in adults points to a defect in an enzyme called dopa decarboxylase which helps make dopamine. This defect in dopamine production occurs in the anterior frontal cortex, an area associated with cognitive processes such as focusing and attention.
Big image

HOW MIGHT HEREDITY OR GENETICS PLAY IN THE ROLE OF ADHD

ADHD runs in the family. Anywhere from one-third to one-half of the parents with ADHD will have a child with this disorder. There are genetic characteristics that seem to be passed down.

If a parent has ADHD, a child has more than a 50% chance of having it. If an older sibling has it, a child has more than a 30% chance.

PERCENTAGES OF THE POPULATION AFFECTED

ADHD affects between 1.5 and 3.5 million school-age children in the U.S., or an estimated 5% of all boys and 2% of all girls.