Article One

Effective Reading and Writing Instruction

Molly Burger

Section C

September 10, 2015

Main Ideas

Modeling is an important aspect of effective reading and writing.

- When modeling for reading and writing you must do three things:

  1. BE SPECIFIC: Think about WHEN to use the strategy and why you should use it then.
  2. BE EXPLICIT: Think about HOW to use the strategy and the steps you must take.
  3. BE FLEXIBLE: Think about being flexible in making your strategy selection and the application of that strategy.

- The article tells us that it is important to use modeling with our students when we want to teach students to use cognitive learning strategies. Struggling students with learning disabilities may struggle with how to use strategies to support their comprehension. Teachers can use cueing, rehearsal, and strategy training to help those students who struggle with reading. (Regan, Berkeky, page 277) Some strategies for helping students who struggle with writing are the STOP strategy, graphic organizers, and visual mneumonics.

- Key Techniques:

1. Think-aloud - the teacher thinks out loud during the process or working out a problem.

2. Self-statements are great for encouragement and reinforcement especially if they are positive self-statements. Students can write positive tbings about themselves.

- Teachers should continuously be making modifications and adjustments to their instruction according to each of their students' needs.


Being an effective reader and writer is very important. It would be very difficult to be an active member in our society if we lacked the skills or abilities to read and/or write. This article gives strategies and techniques to help our students become more effective in their reading and writing. I think modeling is a really great way to teach students because most children learn by watching others. If they see their teacher modeling an action or strategy in front of them consistently, they will feel more comfortable doing it themselves.


  1. How might you use modeling in your classroom with your future students?
  2. What are some ways that you have seen modeling by teachers in the classroom?
  3. What kind of adaptations woukd you have to make in the classroom when using modeling with ELL students who may not speak English or be able to read English?
Think Aloud


Regan, K., & Berkeley, S. (2011). Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling. Intervention in School and Clinic, 276-282.