By: Hunter Rowland

Structure of DNA and RNA

The DNA lies within the nucleus of a cell. It is like the brain od the cell. RNA is almost excactly like the DNA

Traits and Heredity

Heredity is the passing of phenotypic traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. A distinguishing feature, as of a person's character.

Dominant and Recessive

Recessive- Both parents carry a normal gene (N), and a faulty, recessive, gene (n). The parents, although carriers, are unaffected by the faulty gene. Their offspring are affected, not affected, or carriers.

Dominant- One parent has a single, faulty dominant gene (D), which overpowers its normal counterpart (d), affecting that parent. When the affected parent mates with an unaffected and non-carrier mate (dd), the offspring are either affected or not affected, but they are not carriers.


Gametes are reproductive cells (sex cells) that unite during sexual reproduction to form a new cell called a zygote.

Homozygous and Heterozygous

  1. Homozygous is a genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles for a particular gene from both parents. A diploid organism is heterozygous at a gene locus when its cells contain two different alleles of a gene. The cell or organism is called a heterozygote specifically for the allele in question, therefore,heterozygosity refers to a specific genotype

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Complimentary DNA and mRNA strands

Transcription and translation are the means by which cells read out, or express, the genetic instructions in their genes. Because many identical RNA copies can be made from the same gene,and each RNA molecule can direct the synthesis of many identical protein molecules, cells can synthesize a large amount of protein rapidly when necessary. But each gene can also be transcribed and translated with a different efficiency, allowing the cell to make vast quantities of some proteins and tiny quantities of others. Moreover, as we see in the next chapter, a cell can change (or regulate) the expression of each of its genes according to the needs of the moment—most obviously by controlling the production of its RNA.

X-Linked Disorders

X-linked diseases are single gene disorders that reflect the presence of defective genes on the X chromosome. This chromosome is present as two copies in females but only as one copy. The inheritance patterns of X-linked diseases in family pedigrees are complicated by the fact that males always pass their X chromosome to their daughters but never to their sons, whereas females pass their X chromosomes to daughters and sons with equal. in males.

Process of DNA Replication

  1. DNA replication. The double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a template for the next strand. Bases are matched to synthesize the new partner strands. DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.

Protein Synthesis (Transcription and Translation)

Transcription is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. This copy, called a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, leaves the cell nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it directs the synthesis of the protein, which it encodes. Here is a more complete definition of transcription.

Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes. In the cell cytoplasm, the ribosome reads the sequence of the mRNA in groups of three bases to assemble the protein. Here is a more complete definition of translation.

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering processes can make human insulin. Human insulin DNA is placed into the DNA of a second organism. The host organism becomes an insulin-producing factory. People with diabetes (called diabetics) do not correctly produce or use their insulin protein. The insulin protein helps control how much sugar is in your bloodstream. Millions of diabetics need to take insulin. Insulin from cows and pigs has been used since the early 1900s to treat diabetes. Now human insulin protein can be mass-produced through genetic engineering processes.

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information—called DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)—in a person's cells

Haploid and Diploid

Haploid cells are cells that contain only one complete set of chromosomes. The most common type of haploid cells is gametes, or sex cells. Haploid cells areproduced by meiosis. They are genetically diverse cells that are used in sexual reproduction.Diploid cells are those that have two sets of chromosomes. In diploid organisms, the parents each donate one set of chromosomes that will make up the two sets in the offspring. Most mammals are diploid organisms, which means they have two homologous copies of each chromosome in the cells. In humans, there are 46 chromosomes. In most diploid organisms, every cell except for gametes will be diploid and contain both sets of chromosomes.


Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle process by which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is often followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components
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Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half. This process occurs in all sexually reproducing eukaryotes (both single-celled and multicellular) including animals, plants, and fungi. In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by two rounds of cell division to produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original parent cell.
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Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his garden. Mendel's observations became the foundation of modern genetics and the study of heredity, and he is widely considered a pioneer in the field of genetics.

Watson and Crick

In 1962 James Watson (b. 1928), Francis Crick (1916–2004), and Maurice Wilkins (1916–2004) jointly received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their 1953 determination of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Wilkins’s colleague Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958), who died of cancer at the age of 37, was not so honored because the Nobel Prize can only be shared by three scientists. The molecule that is the basis for heredity, DNA, contains the patterns for constructing proteins in the body, including the various enzymes. A new understanding of heredity and hereditary disease was possible once it was determined that DNA consists of two chains twisted around each other, or double helixes, of alternating phosphate and sugar groups, and that the two chains are held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of organic bases—adenine (A) with thymine (T), and guanine (G) with cytosine (C).
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