By: Hunter Rowland
Traits and Heredity
he Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C.Punnett, who devised the approach. The diagram is used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype.
Dominant and Recessive
Recessive- Both parents carry a normal gene (N), and a faulty, recessive, gene (n). The parents, although carriers, are unaffected by the faulty gene. Their offspring are affected, not affected, or carriers.
Dominant- One parent has a single, faulty dominant gene (D), which overpowers its normal counterpart (d), affecting that parent. When the affected parent mates with an unaffected and non-carrier mate (dd), the offspring are either affected or not affected, but they are not carriers.
Homozygous and Heterozygous
Homozygous is a genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles for a particular gene from both parents. A diploid organism is heterozygous at a gene locus when its cells contain two different alleles of a gene. The cell or organism is called a heterozygote specifically for the allele in question, therefore,heterozygosity refers to a specific genotype
Complimentary DNA and mRNA strands
X-linked diseases are single gene disorders that reflect the presence of defective genes on the X chromosome. This chromosome is present as two copies in females but only as one copy. The inheritance patterns of X-linked diseases in family pedigrees are complicated by the fact that males always pass their X chromosome to their daughters but never to their sons, whereas females pass their X chromosomes to daughters and sons with equal. in males.
Process of DNA Replication
DNA replication. The double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a template for the next strand. Bases are matched to synthesize the new partner strands. DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.
Protein Synthesis (Transcription and Translation)
Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes. In the cell cytoplasm, the ribosome reads the sequence of the mRNA in groups of three bases to assemble the protein. Here is a more complete definition of translation.