Why is it called Phishing?
Encryption and Methods of protection
Credit cards and other personal details are now encrypted by banks when sent over the internet to stop data being intercepted and used in identity fraud. Encryption scrambles the information in a certain pattern making it impossible to understand unless you have the specific decryption pattern. Banks also ask security questions such as 'what is your mother's maiden name?' to make sure that you are who you say you are and they also adress you by name as it is unlikely fraudsters will have this information.
It is quite easy to tell real from fake emails from your bank. If the web adress looks suspisious, words are spelt wrong, there's something the bank would not do, the email adress looks suspisious or wrong somehow.