# The Key To Success For Batters

### By Jacob Hering

## I. Introduction

Baseball bats today are made to limit how fast the ball reacts of the bat when hit. The United States Specialty Sports Association (USSSA) made a stamp that only allowed those type of bats to be used during games to protect pitchers and fielders. The purpose of this experiment is to figure out if the circumference of the bat really affects the distance the ball travels.* *If the circumference of the bat increases then the distance the ball travels will increase because there is a higher probability that the ball will make contact with the sweet spot located on the barrel of the bat.

## Parts of the Experiment

1. Dependent variable- The distance the ball travels

2. Independent variable – Circumference of the bat

3. Control group – Barrel with the circumference of 7.85 inches (average circumference of baseball bats)

4. Experimental group- The other bats in the experiment with a circumference that is not 7.85 inches.

5. Constants- Same 10 baseballs in order, same tape measure and field.

## iii. Procedures –

1. Number baseballs 1-10

2. Place ball #1 on tee

3. Hit baseballs in order from 1-10

4. Measure distance traveled of all baseballs and record in logbook

5. Repeat steps 2-4 for the other bats

6. Repeat steps 2-5 5 times

## V. Calculations

## Standard Deviation

Standard Deviation:

(229-238.25)^2+(233-238.25)^2+(241+239.25)^2+(250-238.25)^2÷4 = 64.67

√64.67= 8.04

The average distance a ball was hit is 238.25ft. The majority of the distances can be found with in 8.04 feet above or below the mean.

## Statistical Analysis

In my ANOVA test the p-value is a measure of how likely you are to get this spot data if no real difference existed. Therefore, a small p-value indicates that there is a small chance of getting this data if no real difference existed. My P-value was very high so it shows that my project is likely to get this data if no real difference existed. Which in the end shows that there is no correlation between the circumference of the bat and the distance the ball travels.

## Vi. Analysis-

I claim that if the circumference of the bat increases then the distance the ball travels will increase because there is a higher probability that the ball will make contact with the sweet spot located on the barrel of the bat. For example from our evidence bat 4 had the most consistent distance with an average 250 ft. I reason that the 4th bat won because it had the largest amount of mass. According to Newton’s 2nd law f=m*a, so in this case the bigger bat had the mass and just enough acceleration to hit the ball the furthest on average. The other bats definitely had the acceleration and not enough mass. My data ultimately shows that if a big bat and a small bat are traveling through the strike zone at the same speed, then the big bat will hit the ball harder.

## Vii. Conclusion

I claim that I observed the correlation between the mass of a bat vs. the distance the ball travels. My hypothesis was not supported because in my data the bat with the largest circumference did not have the longest average distance. The purpose of this experiment is to figure out if the circumference of the bat really affects the distance the ball travels.* *If the circumference of the bat increases then the distance the ball travels will not be effected.

## ViiI. Sources of Error and Inaccuracies

The biggest error that I found in my experiment is using bats with different weights. This could change my results drastically because of newton’s 2nd law. On November 29th 2014 was the day before an expected cold front. There were winds reaching 15 mph and you could see the baseball flying right to the North East. Also on December 6th 2014 the city of Coppell had an expected clean up of the More Road Fields. They dug up old dirt and roots and really tore up the infield. While I was hitting, the tee was at an uneven level of ground and I noticed that the abundant piles of dirt stopped the spin of the baseball dramatically. These three factors could very well give me unreliable results. Describe any laboratory mistakes.

## IX. Application

My experiment applies to real life almost everyday. A new kid wanting to be the best in his league needs a new bat. This experiment proves that a larger mass improves the average distance the ball travels. You can use my results in two the first way is to inspire thriving hitters to get a new bat with an increased mass so that he/she may improve and get stronger. Or you can look at the data and view it as a since of unbalance between the batter and pitcher and could rule it as a safety issue or a form of cheating. It is important to that you know incase you may have a son or daughter playing baseball and you want them to be the leagues most feared slugger. Or you are concerned about baseball safety you know that an increase in mass raises risks for the pitchers and fielders.

## X. Improvement

I could improve my experimental design by using the same type of baseball. I used the same 10 baseballs continuously, but some of the baseballs are different brands and different companies make baseballs different. Another investigation I could do is seeing if the mass of the bat could effect the distance the ball travels.

## Xi. Bibliography

"Bat Weight, Swing Speed and Ball Velocity." *Bat Weight, Swing Speed and Ball Velocity*. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2015.

"Official Rules." *Major League Baseball*. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015.

"Physics of Baseball :: Physics Sport Sports Baseball." *Physics of Baseball :: Physics Sport Sports Baseball*. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015.

"The Baseball Analysts: Comparing the Performance of Baseball Bats."*The Baseball Analysts: Comparing the Performance of Baseball Bats*. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015.