"WHY WE EAT WHAT WE EAT"

By: Deja Phillippe

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES

A. Media

This includes influences such as newspaper, radio, television, magazines/books, and the internet. Most people could easily fall into the trap that persuades them to buy delicious snacks or fast food they see on t.v. or in other advertisements. Food and beverage manufacturers spend billions on marketing their products to American children,


B. Economics

Economics influence people based on prices, food availability's, and demand. How much money we have can also affects our nutritional choices. How many times have you eaten at a fast food restaurant to avoid spending more than a few dollars? The food you buy is probably less than healthy fare. When grocery shopping, it’s tempting to stock up on foods that are “buy one, get one free.” Sense we rely on the store to provide food for us, availability is a huge factor on our food choices.


C. Environmental

Environmental influences include Ecological factors like climate issues and land availability. Where you live, work or go to school can have a big impact on food choice. People who live closer to grocery and health-food stores tend to eat more healthfully. If you live somewhere with poor land availability and cold climates, fruits and vegetables may be shipped from another place. This decrease the freshness, availability, and quality of your food.


D. Technological

-Food processing & food preparation

-Technology influence the taste, appearance and experience of food more than ever. Well, machinery and technology enable us to produce forms of foods we never could before, and that lets you mix them in many different ways. Many developments influence food choices, for example; Internet shopping, GMO's, creation of food substances for sugars and fats, microwave ovens, developments of packaging.

Individual Influences

A. Physiological Influences

-Gender/Age (Caloric needs & Nutritional needs)

-Health (Wellness & Activity levels)

-Our bodies need food for growth, repair/maintenance and energy, we consume food due to hunger also.

-We do not consume particular foods because of food allergies or food sensitivities


B. Psychological influences

-Stress, Emotion, Appetite

-Many psychological factors influence the types of foods we eat. For example, because of our mood we may consume particular foods because we are bored, sad or happy.

-Often overeating is linked with depression and weight problems.


C. Personal (likes and dislikes)

-Likes; "Why do you like foods that you choose?"

-Dislikes; "Why do you dislike the foods you refuse to eat?"

-Opinions and personal taste have a big control on what you consume


D. Culture & Customs

-Racial, religious and social groups that practice similar traditions.

*Dietary laws

-Muslims & Jews consider pork unclean

-Fish is eaten during lent

-Hindu are vegetarian

-islam dont consume pork

-Judaism eat kosher foods


E. Traditions

*Traditions that are practiced yearly

-Thanksgiving

-Easter

-Christmas

- Family traditions often revolve around food, as do major social and cultural customs in most societies.

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Healthy Food Choices

A. Dietary Guidelines for Americans

-Provide science based nutrition and fitness information for healthy lifestyles and reducing ones risk of chronic diseases, such as: Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, certain cancers

-Are developed jointly between the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

-Are revised every five years

Beginning with the 2005 edition, contain more technical information, making it oriented more toward policymakers, healthcare providers, nutrition educators, and nutritionists than the general public.

-Purpose is to improve the health of all Americans, two years of age and older.

Contain strategies that give consideration to one’s food preferences, cultural traditions, and diversity of customs.

-Gives key recommendations that helps build healthy eating patterns


B. Weight Management

- To regulate and ,maintain a healthy weight

-Balance calories consumed with calories used.

-Prevent gradual weight gain over time

*Decrease food and beverage calories

*Increase physical activity

-To lose weight

*Decrease calories

*Maintain adequate nutrient intake

*Increase physical activity

-Specific populations

*Overweight children

*Pregnant women (determined by doctor)

*Breastfeeding women (Moderate weight loss is safe)

*Overweight adults

*Overweight children w/ chronic diseases (should grow into weight)


C. Physical Activity needs

-Engage in regular physical activity

-Reduce sedentary activities

-Adults should:

*Do moderate-intense physical activity most days of the week

*Most people can benefit from more intense/vigorous activity

-Adults should maintain adequate nutrition and increase exercise

-Achieved by: Cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, resistance exercise for muscle strength and endurance


D. "My Plate" VS "Food Pyramid"

The food pyramid was dominated by grains, which filled in the largest spot at the bottom of the pyramid in the original version. The Plate version reserves only one quadrant for grains and really focused on fruits and vegetables, which take up half the plate. Not only did the food guide pyramid tell you how many servings of each food group to consume each day , but it somewhat alluded to how large a single serving actually was. The assumption is that if you eat off of a normal sized plate, and if you don't pile your food up too high, you're eating a normal, healthy amount for weight management. The lack of serving sizes makes the Plate simpler to implement and understand than the pyramid once was. Many see the Plate as an improvement over the pyramid of our past.

E. Nutritional Labels on Packages

People look at food labels for different reasons. Many consumers would like to know how to use this information more effectively and easily. Label-building skills are intended to make it easier for you to use nutrition labels quickly and provide us with needed information, like the content of carbohydrates, fat and sodium in the foods we are choosing. It gives you a true picture of what you are eating.

The nutrition fact label is such an important tool, but it only works if you use it. With this revised nutrition fact label hopefully consumers will be able to easily decipher it, make good choices and improve their overall health.

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F. Food groups for specific populations

Over 50:
  • Reduce sodium intake to 1,500 mg.
  • Consume foods fortified with vitamin B12, such as fortified cereals, or dietary supplements

Pregnant women:

  • Consume 8 – 12 ounces of seafood per week from a variety of seafood types.
  • Due to methyl mercury content, limit white albacore tuna to 6 ounces per week and DO NOT eat tilefish, shark, swordfish, and king mackerel.
  • If pregnant, take iron supplements as recommended by a health care provider.
Children:
  • Whole grains for fiber & energy
  • Vegetables for fiber, vitamins, and minerals
  • Fruit for fiber and vitamins
  • Dairy for calcium, vitamins, and proteins
  • Meats, beans, and fish for protein
  • Kids have small stomachs so they eat less - this means they require more smaller meals snacks help satisfy their hunger.
Teens
  • Young people experience many changes during their tween and teen years. Protein is necessary for physical growth, and should account for 15-20% of total calories.
  • The diets of teenagers should contain no more than 30% of calories as total fat and 10% of calories as saturated fat.
  • Large amounts of calcium are needed during the teenage years, and large amounts of vitamins are needed to meet energy requirements.