President Eisenhower

Marin Hulme

Election

First Election

-Republicans-Eisenhower

-Democrats- Adali E. Stevenson

-Senator Richard M. Nixon- VP for Republicans

-Nixon was reported to have a "slush fund"

-Nixon publicly apologized and gave the famous "Checkers Speech"

-the election was overwhelmingly won by Eisenhower


Second Election

-Republican

-Democrats- Adali Stevenson

-Eisenhower won an enormous majority

-drastic labor-reform bill came into play after recurrent strikes in major industries

-enormous response to Teamster Boss Hoffa from Eisenhower on public television

Cold War

Cold War- The nonviolent war between the U.S.S.R and the U.S after 1945


1954 CIA-backed coup in Guatemala, Dien Bien Phu falls to pro-Communist forces, Geneva Conference splits Vietnam into two countries, SEATO is founded

1955- Warsaw Pact is signed

1957- Eisenhower Doctrine is announced USSR launches Sputnik I

1958- Congress passes National Defense Education Act

1960- U-2 incident embarrasses U.S. government

1961- Eisenhower gives farewell address

Joseph McCarthy

-Anti-communist

-Senator from Wisconsin

-originally said Secretary of State Dean Acheson employed 205 Communist leaders

-stated there was only 57 real communists---failed to root out one

-began making charges against government officials for "acts of communism"

-loved the limelight

-began accusing U.S Army and was going too far

U.S Army fought back for months and showed how ridiculous Joseph McCarthy was

-known as "Low Blow Joe"

-Senate condemned him for " conduct unbecoming a member"

-Died three years later of chronic alcoholism

Desegregation of the South

- 15 million blacks in 1950

-two thirds still remained in South

-Jim Crow Laws still in existence

-segregated school, public toilets and drinking fountains

-20 precent of eligible southern blacks were registered to vote

- An American Dilemma by Swedish scholar Gunnar Myrdal exposed the contradiction between"America’s pro- fessed belief that all men are created equal and its sordid treatment of black citizens."

-NAACP helps advance black people in America and helped say the "white primary" is unconstitutional

- African Americans were some of the most affected people by the war

-went North and West in search of jobs

-Sweatt v. Painter: separate schools for black did not meet the test for equality

-Rosa Parks sat on a seat that said "whites only" and was arrested

- Chief Justice Earl Warren strongly advocated black equal rights

- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas: the learned justices ruled that segregation in the public schools was “inherently unequal” and thus unconstitutional.

- At little rock in September of 1957, Ike was forced to act.

-Orval Faubus, the governor of Arkansas mobilized National Guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling in school

-Eisenhower sent down troops to help escort them to school

- Southern Christain Leadership Conference (SCLC): 1957; MLK; mobilize black churches for black rights

-Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC): 1960; force desegregation in schools

Eisenhower Policies

Operation Wetback- to round up illegal immigrants who had undercut the bracero program during WWII and taken a wet route across the Rio Grande; more than 1 million mexicans apprehended and returned

-legitimated many New Dealish programs

-Interstate Highway Act of 1956: $27 billion plan to build 42 thousand miles of sleek fast motorways

-built up an air fleet of superbombers (called the Strategic Air Command, or SAC) equipped with city-flattening nuclear bombs.

the Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957, pledging U.S. military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression.

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Space Race

-Soviet scientists amazed the world when they sent Sputnik I, II an a dog to space in 1957

-"Rocket Fever" swept the nation

-America exploded Vangaurd missile just a few feet above the ground

-National Defense and Education Act NDEA- $887 million in loans to needy college students for the improvement of teaching the sciences and languages