The Vietnam War

by: Yaxuan Meyer & Emily Warner

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Terms:

Cold War- an intense economic, political, military and ideological rivalry after WW11 between the U.S. and Soviet Union

Containment- stop the spread of communism

DMZ- demilitarized zone

Domino Theory- was promoted by U.S. government, said if one state in a region becomes communist, he rest will follow

Draft- selection of men to serve n the military

General William Westmoreland- military commander of assistance commander in Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh-communist leader of North Vietnam

My Lai Massacre-mass murder of 347-504 of unarmed civilians in South Vietnam

National Liberation Front-vietnamese political organization formed to overthrow the South Vietnamese government

Ngo Dinh Diem-first president of South Vietnam 1955-1963

Pentagon Papers- officially titled, "Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force"

Tet Offensive-one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War

Viet Cong-communist-lead army that used guerrilla force

Vietnamization- U.S. policy of withdrawing its troops and transferring war effort

Pathways to War, the Gulf of Tonkin Incident

1. Write a short synopsis of the resolution and its meaning.

It was to promote the maintenance of international peace and security in Southeast Asia. It meant that America was allowed to get involved in the conflict in Vietnam.

2.What is the impact of the Gulf of Tonkin incident on the United States?

President Johnson and President Nixon relied on this resolution as the legal basics of their military policies in Vietnam.

Events:

1954- Geneva Convention Agreement

1957- Communist Insurgency into South Vietnam

1960- Vietcong Formed

1961- Battle of Kienhon Province

1964- Gulf of Tonkin Incident

1965- Operation "Rolling Thunder" Deployed

1967- Operation Cedar Falls Begins

1968- Battle of Hue

March 1968- My Lai Massacre

1969- Vietnamization Announced

Veterans:

Ralph E. Gragg

He served 20 years in the service. He fought in the Korean War. He had no future and dropped out of school, so he signed into the service. He served in Vietnam for about a year, 1965-1966. He was never in combat. Ralph was located in Cam Ranh Bay, where he had long hours of helped built hangers, airfields, things like that, roads, and etc.

-Yaxuan

Michael Seidel

Seidel joined the navy right out of high school in 1966. He went over to Vietnam for 2 years. He didn't want to continue his service, so when he returned home he went to medical school. He became a medical director at Winchester for 15 years. Then his company was bought and he decided to return to the Navy Air Reserves. He was stationed in Vietnam as the right hand man of the Commodore. He was not involved in active combat, only little firefights. When he returned to the USA, he recalled that people did not welcome him home (other than his own family). At that time, many Americans were not happy about the war in Vietnam so they would scream at the solders or spit on them when they returned home. Michael Seidel safely came home and he also has a son who also joined the Navy.

-Emily

Protest Songs

"I Feel Like I'm Fixing to Die Rag" by Country Joe McDonald and the Fish (1965)

We picked this song because it asks what we were fighting for. We feel like this was a question most Americans were asking. The song also states that everybody's going to die, and that was the mindset of the American citizens. The song also sympathizes with all the mothers who will have their sons die in the war.

"It Better End Soon" by Chicago (1969)

We picked this song because it describes how no one can stand the war. Most people hated the war and this is described in the song by telling about how everyone is dying and the war was hurting families.

"Draft Dodger Rag" by Phil Ochs (1965)

We picked this song because it describes how people did not want to go into the war. This man in the song describes all that is wrong with him, such as flat feet and poor vision. The song really tells how people tried to avoid the draft.
"Universal Soldier" by Buffy Sainte-Marie (1964)

"Masters of War" by Bob Dylan (1963)

"Eve of Destruction" by Barry McGuire (1965)

"The Times They Are A Changing" by Bob Dylan (1964)

"Blowin' in the Wind" by Peter, Paul, and Mary (1963)

"Get Together" by The Youngbloods (1967)

"Turn, Turn, Turn" by The Byras (1965)

Heros or vilains in My Lai Massacre

Hugh Thompson Jr.- HERO

Army helicopter pilot who tried to land twice after seeing piles of dead bodies. He told his gunner crew to kill any American soldiers who opened fire at the civilians. He reported what he has seen to his superior officers.
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WIlliam Calley- VILLAIN

William Calley was charged with murder. During the Vietnam War he told his soldiers "take care of these people," when they went into the town. His soldiers did not obey his orders. The soldiers killed 504 innocent people from babies to elderly civilians. Soldiers rapped the women before they were killed. William Calley is considered a villain because he was the one that was in charge of the soldiers. He should have gone with the soldiers to supervise what they were doing.
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