Landforms and Climate Zones

by Research Team #5

Volcanoes

There are many types of volcanoes that are all made from hot magma reaching the Earth's surface. They all erupt, although some are smaller than others. Magma boils under the Earth's crust and in its mantle. It rises and finds weaknesses in the Earth's crust so is can erupt. Once the magma is above the Earth's crust, it is called lava instead of magma.

River

A river is a natural stream of fairly large size. It flows in a definite course in a series of diverging and converging channels.

Tributary

A tributary is a river or stream that flows into another river or into a larger body of water. An example of this is the White Nile, which flows into the world-famous Nile River.

Hill

A hill is a landform that stands above the terrain that surrounds it. It typically has an obvious summit, but a hill is often referred to as a flat terrain without a very large summit.

Glacier

A glacier is basically a mountain of ice formed from snow falling and collecting and moving very slowly, either downwards or outwards.

Lake

A typically large body of still water that is located in a basic and completely surrounded by land apart from a river or other outlet that either feeds or empties the lake.

Mountain

A mountain is normally in the form of a peak and stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area.

Cape

A piece of land that juts into the sea or some other large body of water.

Peninsula

A piece of land that is surrounded on three sides by water but is connected to a mainland.

Straight

A straight is a naturally formed, narrow waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. It is normally a strip of water that goes between two land masses that connects bodies of water on either side.

Gulf

A gulf is a portion of water that penetrates land. They are similar to bays but are typically larger and deeper than the average bay.

Bay

A bay is a body of water that is partially surrounded by land. It is usually smaller and less enclosed than a gulf, but is used as a harbor often, much like gulfs are.

Canal

A man-made, long, and narrow place that is filled with water. It is made so that boats can pass through it or to supply for fields or crops.

Canyon

A deep and narrow valley with steep sides. It is created by erosion from a river running over the land and carrying away anything making the land, progressively making it deeper and deeper.