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Feudalism was the major social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility were given lands in exchange for service. Manorialism was the organizing principle of European rural society. In Manorialism peasants worked on nobles land called manors in return for being able to stay on the manor.
In the Middle Ages the Catholic Church controlled most of every day life. The church became rich because so many people gave the church all of their land/money when they died. Despite being the church they started interfering with political matters. People didn't like this and thought that the church shouldn't be interfering with the matters of the king.
Monarchs were the Kings/Queens of kingdoms. Some famous monarchs were Henry IV, and King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Henry IV was famous for being excommunicated from the church then begging the pope to be let back in. Then King Henry and Queen Isabella were famous for doing the Spanish Inquisition in which they prosecuted all non-believers in catholicism
The Crusades were called the "Holy Wars" because the Christians were trying to retake the Holy Land. The Crusades lasted about 3 years each. The reason for these is that Pope Urban II called Nobles, knights, and peasants to retake the Holy Land. Then after the first crusade was a success, and then people left the Holy Land, the rest of the crusades failed. Then someone had the bright idea to send CHILDREN to fight, most died before they reached the half-way point. The Children's Crusade never reached the Holy Land
The Black Death was a plague that swept through Europe wiping out 1/3 of the population. The plague was called The Great Dying
Knights were highly trained warriors that fought for lords in exchange for land. All knights had loyalties to the person that paid them the most land for their services. Knights had to follow a strict code called chivalry.
The Pope was the head of the Roman Catholic Church. Popes had lots of power because the church was influential in politics. The Pope was also very rich because people donated their belongings to the church when they died.
Growth of Cities
During the late Middle Ages cities began to spring up in place of manors. This caused a greater need for craftsmen and artisans. The reason for this is that people wanted things of beauty and they had more tine on their hands because they didn't have to work in the fields.
The Spanish Inquisition was when King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella prosecuted all people who didn't Believe in Catholicism. They would do this by torturing the non believers and they would usually tell of another non believer. The reason for this is that they wanted to purify Spain. In the process of the inquisition the king and queen became rich and eventually even the pope got tired of it.
Some advancements in the late Middle Ages are the longbow and the cannon. These were great advances because they made fighting easier. Another great advancement is that instead of land being an item of money they had actual coins and money systems