Medical topic blog

Autism spectrum disorders by Haley Keihn

Analyses and Definitions

1) Word analyses of Heterogeneity

heter/o (CF)= different, other

-gene (S)= formation, produce

-ity (S)= state, condition of

Defintion: The condition of different formation of genes


2) Word analyses of Psychiatric

psych (CF)= mind

iatr (CF)= treatment

-ic (S)= pertaining to

Definition: Pertaining to mental illness


3) Word analyses of Echolalia

ech/o (CF)= echo, reflected sound

-lalia (S)= to talk

Definition: The repeating of one word or saying


4) Word analyses of Macrocephaly

macr/o (CF)= large

cephal (R)= head

-y (S)= condition, process, pertaining to

Definition: A child with a large circumference of the head


5) Word analyses of Psychotherapeutic

psych/o (CF)= mind

therap (CF)= treatment

eu- (P)= good, normal

-tic (S)=pertaining to

Definition: Treating mental health problems

Summary

Autism Spectrum Disorder also know as ASD is a cluster of childhood onset neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by qualitative impairments in communication, reciprocal social interactions, and restricted and restive interests and behaviors (WHO,1992). There is substantial heterogeneity in the Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms and clinical presentation; hence, diagnosis is often not made until late adolescence or adulthood (NICE, 2012). Autism Spectrum Disorder are commonly associated with with learning disabilities and high rates of psychiatric comorbidity (Hofvander, 2009; Joshi, 2013; Simionoff, 2008), including anxiety disorders (Van Steensal, 2011; White, 2009a), depression (Ghaziuddin, 2002), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder traits (Taylor, 2013), and more general "emotional and behavioral problems" (Maskey, 2013). A lack of peer and intimate relationships are frequently the norm (White, 2009a). Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms can be presented in different ways depending on the person.


Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder (Ireland, 2015). Ireland (2015) found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in a larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Ireland (2015) results provide a conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this end-phenotype in multi-biomaker diagnosis panels of clinical use.


Acupuncture, which involves the use of needles or pressure to specific points on the body, is used widely in Traditional Chinese Medicine and increasingly within a western medical paradigm (Chan, 2009). Individual study results suggested there may be some benefit from acupressure for certain aspects of the secondary outcomes of communication and linguistic ability, cognitive function, and global functioning (Chan 2009). Chan (2009) concluded that current evidence does not support the use of acupuncture for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder. There is no conclusive evidence that acupuncture is effective for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children and no RCTs have been carried out with adults. Further high quality trails of larger size and longer follow up are needed (Chan, 2009). There is no known treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder.