Ancient Egypt

By: Halie Mesko 5th hour

Physical Geography of Egypt

The Nile River

The Nile river goes through Egypt and is 4,000 kilometers long. It is also the longest river in the world. The Nile flows South to North and gave water for Egypt when they were first becoming a civilization. But the Nile did not provide just that, it also gave the Egyptians silt to grow crops with, just like how the rivers near Mesopotamia help them become an advanced civilization.

Egypt's Land

Egypt is almost completely desert and is by the Red and Mediterranean Seas. Egypt also has two regions, the Northern and Southern regions.

The Nile Protected Egypt

The Nile provided many things and that includes safety. The Nile protected Egypt from invaders. It's cataracts, or rapids, blocked off invaders and made it difficult to sail on.

Social Hierarchy

  • Pharaohs- Pharaohs are the kings or rulers of Egypt
  • Nobles- Nobles work for and help the pharaohs
  • Priests- Priests receive messages from commoners to deliver to the Gods and Goddesses
  • Scribes- Writers
  • Craftspeople- Craftspeople are the people who make the tools and weapons
  • Farmers- People who farm the crops
  • Women- Women would stayed home to cook and clean
  • Slaves- Slaves are workers and laborers, they were normally found worker for wealthier people


Egypt Social Hierarchy is also similar to Mesopotamia's social hierarchy in many ways. In Mesopotamia Priests are also respected a lot and they also had Scribes in Mesopotamia.

The Pharaohs of Egypt

Pharaohs are the rulers of Egypt. There were many pharaohs in Ancient Egyptian times, here are some of the most influential pharaohs of Egypt.



  • Menes- Menes ruled in 3100 BC. He was the first known pharaoh of Egypt, and some think that he was just a myth and a few pharaohs now as Narmer, Aha, and Scorpion did all of the achievements that he is given credit for.
  • Djoser- Djoser started to rule in 2630 BC and is know for building the first Pyramid in Egypt that was 147 mile high!
  • Sneferu- Snerferu was the first pharaoh that ruled in the fourth dynasty of Egypt and he built large pyramids and temples
  • Khufu- Khufu ruled in 2550 BC. Nobody knows much about him except that he made giant statues and monuments.
  • Ahmose- Ahmose ruled in the 1500s. He was the first pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty, the start of the New Kingdom
  • Hatshepsut- Hatshepsut ruled in 1475 BC and was the first female pharaoh. She built giant temples and was the leader of a major trading system.
  • Thutmose- Thutmose ruled in 1472 BC. His Stepmother was Hatshepsut and he destroyed everything she did.
  • Akhenaton- 1353 BC was when Akhenaton ruled over Egypt. He changed religion because he was Monotheism (Only Believes in One God)
  • Tutankhamen- Tutankhamen (Also known as King Tut) rebuilt temples and returned to old religion. He ruled in 1333 BC and is famous for his tomb filled with jewels
  • Ramses 2- Ramses ruled in 1279 BC and was a leader of an army when he was only ten and he also expanded Egypt very much.

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great took over Egypt and many other countries, he played a big role in Egypt's history. In 332 BC Egypt was taken over and Alexander the Great was officially the pharaoh of Egypt. Once Egypt was taken over the Greek period began and Egypt was changed forever.

The Rosetta Stone

Have you ever heard of the Rosetta stone? The Rosetta Stone is a stone with Greek and Egyptian writing (Hieroglyphics) on it and it is broken down into three scripts that were all different. So, why was the Rosetta Stone like this? The stone was like this because Government Officials, Pharaohs, and the Priests all had to be able to read it.


The Rosetta Stone was created in 196 BC by some priests, but it still wasn't found until 1799. A group of soldiers were fixing a fort in Egypt, when they came across this stone, but they had no idea how much it will effect how we look at Egypt today. The Rosetta Stone helped historians understand Egypt and their culture better and it is now in a museum in London.

Ancient Egypt Religion

A major part of Egypt's religion is mummification. When they mummify a person (or sometimes a animal) they have a long process they have to go through. They would mummify people so that person's Ka could find them. The Egyptians would have to remove all of the organs in the mummy and then wrap up and preserve the body. They believed that a god named Anubis would watch over the process but they also believed in many other gods too because they were Polytheistic. When they were finished the Egyptians believed that the souls would then go to the afterlife with the many gods they believed in.


Another important part of Ancient Egyptian religion is, they believed that every person had a "Ka" which they believed was an "invisible twin" that followed them. The Ka would protect the person it belonged to. This might seem unusual to us but to the Egyptians, it was just part of their religion.

Pyramids

When you think of Pyramids you think of Egypt, but some people believe that Atlanteans made the Pyramids, I disagree. One of the reasons I disagree is because there is no actual proof that Atlantis existed. And if you ever went into one of the pyramids you would find hieroglyphics, which were invented by the Egyptians. Not only were there hieroglyphics in the pyramids, but Khufu (a pharaoh in BC) also signed his name in one. My final reason I believe that the Egyptians made pyramids is because behind some of the stones in one pyramid there is writing from Egypt which means that the Egyptians were in there before the stones were put up to cover the writing, so this is proof that the Egyptians did make the pyramids.

How did Ancient Egypt Effect Egypt now? (Contributions)

Ancient Egypt made many achievements that effected how Egypt is today. For example, Hieroglyphics were the first form of writing in Egypt, later they created Hieratics which was a shorter way of Egyptian writing. This effected Egypt because it gave them their own unique way to write. Another achievement that the Egyptians made was the Great Pyramids and Temples. The Great Pyramids were built by Djoser, the second pharaoh of Egypt. Now days the Great Pyramids are an important part of Egypt.
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Ancient Egypt Pyramids