computer coponents and history

what is in our computer

hard drive

A hard disk drive (sometimes abbreviated as Hard drive, HD, or HDD) is a non-volatile memory hardware device that permanently stores and retrieves information. There are many variations, but their sizes are generally 3.5" and 2.5" for desktop and laptop computers respectively. A hard drive consists of one or more platters to which data is written using a magnetic head, all inside of an air-sealed casing. Internal hard disks reside in a drive bay, connect to the motherboard using an ATA, SCSI or SATA cable, and are powered by a connection to the PSU (power supply unit).

A hard drive can be used to store just about any type of data, including pictures, music, videos, and text documents. Computers have a hard drive and use it to store files for the operating system and software that run on the computer, as well as files created or downloaded to the computer by a user.

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optical drive

Short for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory, a CD-ROM (shown right) is an optical disc which contains audio or software data whose memory is read only . A CD-ROM Drive or optical drive is the device used to read them. CD-ROM drives have speeds ranging from 1x all the way up to 72x, meaning it reads the CD roughly 72 times faster than the 1x version. As you would imagine, these drives are capable playing audio CDs and reading data CDs. Below is a picture of the front and back of a standard CD-ROM drive.
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Alternatively referred to as a video display terminal (VDT) and video display unit (VDU), a monitor encompasses a display screen for video images and casing that holds it. In its most common usage, monitor refers only to devices that contain no electronic equipment other than what is essentially needed to display and adjust the characteristics of an image.
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Alternately referred to as a processor, central processor, or microprocessor, the CPU (pronounced sea-pea-you) is the Central Processing Unit of the computer. A computer's CPU handles all instructions it receives from hardware and software running on the computer.
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Random-access memory (RAM ) is a form of computer dater storage. A random-access memory device allows data items to be accessed (read or written) in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disk, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older drum memory , the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement
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A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems. It holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic components of a system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard usually contains significant sub-systems such as the central processor, the chipset's input/output and memory controllers, interface connectors, and other components integrated for general purpose use.
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Inputs/ outputs

In computing, input/output or I/O is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation . I/O devices are used by a human (or other system) to communicate with a computer. For instance, a keyboard or mouse is an input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are output devices. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards , typically perform both input and output operations.

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Touch Screens

A touchscreen is an input device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system . A user can give input or control the information processing system through simple or multi-touch gestures by touching the screen with a special stylus/pen and-or one or more fingers. Some touchscreens use ordinary or specially coated gloves to work while others use a special stylus/pen only. The user can use the touchscreen to react to what is displayed and to control how it is displayed; for example, zooming to increase the text size.

The touchscreen enables the user to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than using a mouse, touchpad, or any other intermediate device (other than a stylus, which is optional for most modern touchscreens).

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