Dinosaurs

Kirsten Brown

Triassic Period

noting or pertaining to a period of the Mesozoic Era, occurring from230 to 190 million years ago and characterized by the advent of dinosaurs and coniferous forests.

Coelophysis

Diet- Fish, small lizards. cannibalistic scavenger

Size- Between 0.8 - 3.1 metres long, just under 1 metre high at the hip Up to 35-40 kg

Teeth- Dozens of small serrated teeth

Legs- 2

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Placerias

Placerias was, at 3.5m in length, the largest herbivore of the Late Triassic Period, whose chunky, barrel-like body may have weighed a little under a tonne. Despite its appearance, Placerias was not a dinosaur, but a type of mammal-like reptile. It was the last of the Dicynodonts, so with its extinction that whole lineage disappeared. Like other dicynodonts, Placerias had tusks which it used to dig up roots and a beak to chop up its food.
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Thrinaxodon

Diet: Carnivore.
Size: 40-50‭ ‬centimetres long.
Known locations: South Africa.‭ ‬Antartica.
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Postosuchus

Carnivore - (herbivore eating cannibal)
Up to 6 metres long, able to rear up 2 metres tall
Just under a tonne
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Peteinosaurus

Winged lizard
Early pterosaur
Insectivore
Up to 60 cm wingspan
Up to 100 grams
Cene, Italian Alps
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Plateosaurus

Flat lizard
Dinosaur (Prosauropod)
Herbivore
9 metres long
4 tonnes
Germany, France, Switzerland
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Jurassic Period

The Jurassic Period (213 to 144 million years ago) is the second of three periods during the Mesozoic Era. It is preceeded by the Triassic Period and it is followed by the Cretaceous Period.

Diplodocus

Diplodocus was one of the longest animals to have lived on Earth and may have reached over 30 metres and weighed around 15 tonnes. The quantity of plant material eaten by roaming herds of this massive herbivore is unimaginable. Once the most famous dinosaur in the world, Diplodocus had four large sturdy legs supporting a long neck and a long tail that could be flailed around like a whip. Several different species have been described since the first Diplodocus discovery was made in North America in 1877. They lived there about 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period.
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Allosaurus

Allosaurus were big, mean killing machines that reigned supreme during the late Jurassic period. They were the most common huge predators in North America 140 million years ago, reaching an impressive 12 metres in length and weighing up to four tonnes. These carnivorous dinosaurs could rip and tear chunks out of the large plant-eating sauropods and stegosaurs of the time. The enormous jaw was filled with long, serrated, back-curving teeth. Near perfect examples of this classic shaped theropod dinosaur were discovered in Wyoming and called Big Al and Big Al Two. Allosaurus fossil remains are extremely rare outside America.
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Ornitholestes

Type

Carnivore, possibly also a scavenger

Lived When

Jurassic (150 million years ago)

Length

6 1/2 feet

Height

1 1/2 to 2 feet tall

Weapons

Sharp teeth, and a powerful bite due to a strong skull

Diet

Scientists aren't sure, but they THINK: lizards, small mammals, possibly birds; it may have fed on the dead bodies of other animals too

Habitat

Forest, fossil found in Wyoming

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Stegosaurus

Type

Large plant-eating dinosaur

Lived When

Late Jurassic (154 to 144 million years ago)

Length

Up to 30 feet (average is 20-23 feet)

Weight

Up to 2 tons

Weapons

Strong tail with two pair of pointed spikes.

Diet

Soft vegetation

Habitat

U.S. Midwest (Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah)

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Brachiosaurus

Brachiosaurus was a gigantic dinosaur. Scientists have estimated its weight at more than 28 tons (25 metric tons). Its neck and head stood up more than 40 feet (12 meters) in the air. The most complete skeletons found belong to animals not yet fully grown. So Brachiosaurus probably grew even longer and taller than we know. Scientists once thought an animal this heavy could only support itself by living in water. The nostrils on top of its head seemed to support this theory. But the pressure of the water would have made it impossible for these animals to take in air.
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Anurognath

Without tail and jaw
Pterosaur
Insectivore
Up to 50 cm wingspan, 9 cm body
Between 3 - 7 grams
Only one fossil from Bavaria
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Dryosaurus


Diet

Herbivore

Length

3 meter[1]

Weight

77 to 91 kg

Range

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Othnielia

Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Ornithischia,‭ ‬Neornithischia.
Species: O.‭ ‬rex.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Uncertain but probably somewhere in the region of‭ ‬1.5‭ ‬to‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters long.
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Ophthalmosaurus

Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Ichthyosauria,‭ ‬Ophthalmosauridae,‭ ‬Ophthalmosaurinae.
Species: O.‭ ‬icenicus‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬O.‭ ‬natans,‭ ‬O.‭ ‬saveljeviensis,‭ ‬O.‭ ‬yasykovi.
Diet: Piscivore,‭ ‬possibly a specialist in deep water squid.
Size: Up to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: Europe,‭ ‬North America.
Time period: Bathonian through to Tithonian of the Jurassic.
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Liopleurodon

carnivore
Up to 25 Metres
Up to 150 tonnes
UK ,Germany
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Eustreptospondylus

carnivore - scavenger of jellyfish, sharks, turtles, stranded reptiles
Up to 5 metres long
Up to 500kg
Oxford, England
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Cryptoclidus

Habitat:

Shallow oceans off Europe

Historical Period:

Late Jurassic (165-150 million years ago)

Size and Weight:

About 25 feet long and 8 tons

Diet:

Fish and crustaceans

Distinguishing Features:

Long neck; flat head with numerous sharp teeth

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Rhamphorhynchus

Carnivore - fish and insects
Up to 2 m wingspan
Up to 1 m body length
Up to 20 kg
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Hybodus

Classification: Chordata, Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Selachimorpha, Hybodontiformes, Hybodontoidea, Hybodontidae.
Species: H. houtienensis.
Type: Type: Carnivore.
Size: Up to 2 meters long.
Known locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Changhsingian of the Permian through to the Berriasian of the Cretaceou
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Perisphinctes

Ammonites are an extinct group of marine animals similar to the nautilus. Like the nautilus, ammonites had a soft body with tentacles that emerged from a hollow chambered shell utilized in the manner of a submarine's ballast tanks. Ammonites are often identified by their shell ornamentation and the structures of the wall that divide the shell's chambers.
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Leptolepis

Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Actinopterygii,‭ ‬Leptolepiformes,‭ ‬Leptolepidae.
Species: L.‭ ‬bronni‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬L.‭ ‬africana,‭ ‬L.‭ ‬brodei,‭ ‬L.‭ ‬valdensis.
Type: Plankton feeder.
Size: 30‭ ‬centimetres long.
Known locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Jurassic to Cretaceous.
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Ornithocheirus

Like many larger pterosaurs, Ornithocheirus had an enormous head relative to its body length. The jaw supported numerous long, slender, pointed teeth, useful for catching a slippery diet of fish and squid.
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Utahraptor

Description: Utahraptor ostrommaysorum is one of the geologically oldest and largest known dromaeosaurids. This group of carnivorous dinosaurs had a large retractable sickle claw on its foot, specialized for cutting. With a name meaning “Utah’s predator,” Utahraptor was a ferocious hunter that used its sickle-shaped claws to attack and rip apart its prey. The claw itself was 9.5 inches (24 cm) long! The species name ‘ostrommaysorumhonors Dr. John Ostrom of Yale University for his pioneering research linking carnivorous dinosaurs to the ancestry of birds. Utahraptor was the inspiration for the Velociraptors in the film Jurassic Park! Utahraptor, however, was quite a bit bigger than Velociraptor; adults were around 23 feet (7 meters) long and around 6 feet (1.8 meters) tall at the hip.
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Dakotadon

Dakotadon is a species of Igunodon from North America. It is a herbivore like all Iguanodons. It is capable of moving between four legs to two legs. It had a sharp nail that can rip leaves from tree branches. It has a tough beak that can chew down tough plants
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Iguanodon

Iguanodon is the name of a small group of dinosaurs within the much larger group called Iguanodontids; they were large herbivores, with a long tail for balance, and hind legs that were longer than their fore limbs. There were three large hooved toes on each foot, and four fingers and a thumb spike on each hand. The mouth had a battery of chewing teeth, and a boney beak in place of front teeth. Since its initial discovery in the early nineteenth century, and more detailed reconstructions after complete skeletons were found in a Belgian mine in 1878, we have been forced to re-evaluate its posture, shape and movement; and to look again at how it fits in with other members of the Iguanodontids. Fossil remains from the group show they existed from the late Jurassic through to the late Cretaceous.
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Tapejara

Classification: Chordata, Reptilia, Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea, Tapejaridae, Tapejarinae.
Species: T. wellnhoferi (type).
Diet: Although usually depicted as a piscivore, Tapejara is sometimes considered to be a Frugivore.
Size: 3.5 meter wingspan.
Known locations: Brazil - Santana Formation.
Time period: Albian of the Cretaceous.
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Polacanthus

Habitat:

Woodlands of Western Europe

Historical Period:

Early-Middle Cretaceous (130-110 million years ago)

Size and Weight:

About 12 feet long and one ton

Diet:

Plants

Distinguishing Characteristics:

Small head; sharp spikes lining neck, back and tail

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Iberomesornis

Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Aves,‭ ‬Ornithothoraces,‭ ‬Enantiornithes,‭ ‬Iberomesornithiformes,‭ ‬Iberomesornithidae.
Species: I.‭ ‬romerali‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Diet: Uncertain.
Size: About‭ ‬20‭ ‬centimetres wingspan.
Known locations: Spain,‭ ‬Cuenca Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Calizas de La Huerguina Formation.
Time period: Barremian of the Cretaceous.
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Saurophthirus

Saurophthirus was a prehistoric flea that drinks the blood of pterosaurs, like modern fleas on mammals. It appeared in Giant of the Skies when its drinking the blood from a pterosaur.
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Pterosaurs

Ranging from the size of a sparrow to the size of an airplane, the pterosaurs (Greek for "wing lizards") ruled the skies in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and included the largest vertebrate ever known to fly: the late Cretaceous Quetzalcoatlus. The appearance of flight in pterosaurs was separate from the evolution of flight in birds and bats; pterosaurs are not closely related to either birds or bats, and thus provide a classic example ofconvergent evolution.
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Leaellynasaura

Dinosaur (ornithopod)
Herbivore
Up to 2 metres long
Up to 10 kilograms
Australia, Antarctica
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Koolasuchus

Koolasuchus was a giant amphibian of the Cretaceous Period that measured an astounding five metres from nose to tail and weighed half a tonne. Its wide, heavy head made up about a sixth of the total body length. Eyes on the top of the head allowed Koolasuchus to be an effective aquatic ambush predator, that struck at small mammals and dinosaurs coming to the water's edge for a drink. It was a survivor from an earlier time, the majority of other temnospondyl amphibians having perished at the end of the Triassic. Since it lived in the polar regions, Koolasuchus probably hibernated to get through the winter, as many modern salamanders do today.
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Polar Allosaur

AttributesSmaller version of Allosaurus; large body; strong jaws

DietMuttaburrasaurus; Leaellynasaura; other animals

Fossil findsAustralia
Antarctica

Temporal fossil rangeCretaceous
106mya

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Muttaburrasaurus

Herbivore
Dinosaur (ornithopod)
Up to 9 metres long
Up to 4 tonnes
Australia
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Steropodon

Lived:110 million years ago (early Cretaceous)Size:Length (head to tail): 35cmDescription:Steropodon was a platypus-like mammal that lived alongside the dinosaurs. It spent most of its time in freshwater creeks and billabongs, probably eating yabbies and other small aquatic animals.Steropodon is an egg-laying mammal, like today's Platypus and echidnas. The Platypus is probably Steropodon's closest living relative.
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Giant Weta

Giant weta are several species of weta in the genus Deinacrida of the family Anostostomatidae. Giant weta are endemic to New Zealand and are examples of island gigantism.
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Tuatara

Adult tuatara range from about 300g to 1kg.

They are the only surviving members of the order Sphenodontia, which was well represented by many species during the age of the dinosaurs, some 200 million years ago. All species exept for the tuatara declined and eventually became extinct about 60 million years ago.

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Tyrannosauraus rex

PrehistoricDiet:CarnivoreSize:40 ft (12 m) long; 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6 m) tallProtection status:Extinct
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Edmontosaurus

Classification: Chordata, Reptilia, Dinosauria, Ornithischia, Ornithopoda, Iguanodontia, Hadrosauroidea, Hadrosauridae, Saurolophinae.
Species: E. regalis, E. annectens.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Adults from‭ ‬9‭ ‬to as much as‭ ‬12‭ ‬meters long.‭ Largest individuals potentially up to 13 meters long. ‬The species E.‭ ‬annectens used to be widely considered as being smaller than E.‭ ‬regalis,‭ ‬but fossil analysis starting from the early twenty-first century has now hinted that E.‭ ‬annectens was probably of a similar size to E.‭ ‬regalis.
Known locations: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta and Saskatchewan,‭ ‬and the USA,‭ ‬including the state of Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota and Wyoming.
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Ankylosaurus

PrehistoricDiet:HerbivoreSize:25 to 35 ft (7.5 to 10.5 m) longProtection status:ExtinctDid you know?Ankylosaurus had a small brain relative to its size and was probably not very intelligent.
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Deinosuchus

Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Sauropsida,‭ ‬Crocodilia,‭ ‬Eusuchia,‭ ‬Alligatoroidea.
Species: D.‭ ‬rugosus‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Type: Carnivore.
Size: ‭ ‬Estimated at around‭ ‬10‭ ‬meters long.‭ ‬Some estimates push this to‭ ‬12‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬but lack of complete fossil material leaves the exact size unknown.
Known locations: USA.‭ ‬Mexico.‭
Time period: Campanian of the Cretaceous.
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Didelphodon

Scientific name :Didelphodon vorax

Name meaning :Opossum tooth

Time period :Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary

Primary diet :Omnivore

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Dinilysia

AttributesEarliest python to appear

DietMeat

Fossil findsNorth America

Temporal fossil rangeCretaceous
65mya



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Dromaeosaurus

Type

Carnivore, predator, possibly scavenger

Lived When

Late Cretaceous (76-72 million years ago)

Weight

33 pounds

Height

1.5 feet tall (at hips)

Length

6 feet

Weapons

Sharp teeth, sickle-shaped claws

Diet

Meat

Habitat

Western United States; Alberta, Canada

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Quetzalcoatlus

Habitat:

Skies of North America

Historical Period:

Late Cretaceous (70-65 million years ago)

Size and Weight:

Wingspan of 30 feet and 200-300 pounds

Diet:

Fish and meat

Distinguishing Characteristics:

Large size; narrow wings; long, pointed beak

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Torosaurus

The bony frill had large fenestrae, or holes, to reduce weight and may have been brightly coloured and used for display. Apart from the large frill, Torosaurus was similar in appearance to its close relative, Triceratops. Both ceratopsians had two long horns sprouting above the eyes with a smaller horn on the snout. Torosaurus used its sharp beak and rows of shearing teeth to munch tough vegetation.
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Triceratops

PrehistoricDiet:HerbivoreSize:30 ft (9 m) long, 4 to 6 tonsProtection status:Extinct
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