Attributes of Learning/Performance

Reading K-5

Reading Kindergarten thru 1st grade


  • Identify letters (graphemes) and the specific sounds they make (phonemes)
  • Blending sounds to form a word
  • Segment a word into phonemes (sound out words)
  • Identify specific letter combinations and the specific sounds they make (i.e. ph-, sh-, -ing, etc.)
  • Be able to use words that indicate spatial and temporal relationships (i.e. before, after, first, second, up, down, over, under, etc.)
  • Be able to answer questions about key details in a read aloud (who, what, when, where?)
  • Be able to retell key components of a read aloud text
  • Be able to sequence four to six illustrations in the order they happened in a read aloud text
  • Identify rhyming words
  • Identify parts of a book (i.e. cover, author, title page, index, etc) and the proper orientation for reading (i.e. holding book right side up, reading from left to right)

1st grade:

All things from Kindergarten as well as:

  • Given a pair of spoken words, pick the one that is longer (which has more phonemes)
  • Indicate where a target phoneme is in a word ( the 'g' at the end of bag)
  • Read tricky spellings that can be sounded two ways, e.g., the letter ‘s’ sounded /s/ as in cats and /z/ as in dogs
  • Read and spell chains of one-syllable words in which one sound is added, substituted, or omitted, i.e., read at > cat > bat > bad > bid.
  • Read at least 30 words generally identified as high frequency words.
  • Understand that sometimes two or more printed letters stand for a single sound.
  • Identify the number of syllables in a spoken word.
  • Compare and contrast characters from different stories.
  • Change some story events and provide a different story ending

  • Create and tell an original story, using narrative language to describe characters, setting(s), and a beginning, a middle and an end to events of the story in proper sequence
  • Distinguish fantasy from realistic text in a story

Reading 2nd thru 3rd grade

2nd grade:

Building on the skills from Kindergarten and Grade 1, by the end of Grade 2 students are expected to be able to identify the elements of who, what, where, when why, and how in a text. They should be able to identify the main purpose of the text and the main topic of a text with multiple paragraphs.

Some more finite details:

  • Compare and contrast similarities and differences within a single read-aloud or between two or more read-alouds.
  • Make personal connections to events or experiences in a read-aloud and/or make connections among several read-alouds.
  • Answer questions that require making interpretations, judgments, or giving opinions about what is heard in a read-aloud, including answering “why” questions that require recognizing cause/effect relationships.
  • Interpret information that is presented orally and then ask additional questions to clarify information or the topic in the read-aloud.
  • Identify repetitions in phrases, refrains, or sounds in poems or songs.
  • Identify sensory language and how it is used to describe people, objects, places and events.
  • Describe the use of rhyme, rhythm and sensory images used in poetry

3rd grade:

Progressing to Grade 3, the student now will tackle answering text dependent questions (questions that can only be answered from information in the text, not opinions). They will be able to identify the point of view (1st, 2nd, 3rd person) from which the story is told. They will move on to comparing two texts when previously they had only been expected to look at one.

Some more finite details:

  • Independently read and comprehend longer works of fiction (“chapter books”) and nonfiction appropriately written for third grade or beyond.
  • Point to specific words or passages that are causing difficulties in comprehension.
  • Orally summarize main points from fiction and nonfiction readings.
  • Ask and pose plausible answers to how, why, and what-if questions in interpreting texts, both fiction and nonfiction.
  • Use a dictionary to answer questions regarding meaning and usage of words with which he or she is unfamiliar.
  • Know how to use a table of contents and index to locate information.

Reading 4th thru 5th grade

4th grade:

Everything from K-3 as well as:

  • Fourth graders should be able to make inferences, and understand the difference in explicit texts.
  • They should be able to identify cause and effect, and summarize a text.
  • By fourth grade, students should be able to decode automatically, allowing them to focus on meaning.
  • They should also be able to identify 1st person and 2nd person point of view, and compare the two.

5th grade:

Everything from K-4 as well as:

  • Fifth graders should be able to analyze multiple accounts of the same event, and compare and contrast the two.
  • They should be able to quote accurately, and draw on information to answer questions correctly.
  • They should be able to integrate information from several texts on the same topic.
  • Fifth graders should be able to identify literal and figurative language, like similes and metaphors, or personification.

Learning Team B

SPE 512

University of Phoenix

Prof. Anita Jarvis

April 26, 2015


Core Knowledge Sequence: Content and Skills Guidelines for Grades K-8. (2010, January 1). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from pdf

(n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from learning/Reading/Critical Attributes of Primary Reading.pdf

Read the Standards. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from the-standards/


(n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from learning/Reading/Critical Attributes of Primary Reading.pdf