Human Body Systems

Includes things such as respiratory, circulatory and immune!

Respiratory System

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. It does this through breathing, in goes oxygen and out comes carbon dioxide.

The Alveoli are tiny air sacs within the lines were the air exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place weights are thin in with a large surface area in relation with volume made up of epithelium tissue.

Oxygen is carried by the blood to the organs third the pulmonary eventual and after is distributed that organs, the carbon dioxide is collected by the red blood cells that carry back to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries where the where from the lungs it exhaled.

COPD- or section of chronic bronchitis asthma and emphysema it is a progressive disease which makes it hard for the patient to breathe.

Causes- smoking or even secondhand smoke air pollution, genes, or asthma.

Symptoms- shortness of breath wheezing tight chest excess mucus in lungs.

Treatment- there is no cure however lifestyle changes can help like quitting smoking and avoiding living here tenants also bronchodilators.

Asthma- chronic inflammation of the lungs airways that cause symptoms.

Causes- environmental allergies in genetic traits environmental triggers such as mold, etc.

Symptoms- cough heavy breathing or wheezing fast heart rate tight chest.

Treatment- steroids in anti-inflammatory medications will help also reduction of mucus and relaxing muscles around airway using bronchodilators helps.


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Reproductive System

Function- produce, maintain & transport sperm<- male; produces eggs for sperm<- women.

Spermatogenesis- spermatozoa produced from male cells by mitosis and meiosis.

Oogenesis- creation of ovum (egg cell)

Why is there division in cytoplasm? so the egg cell can become viable.

Genital Herpes- infection carried over sexually. Can be cured by taking antiviral drugs.

HIV/AIDS- human virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the HIV. This cannot be cured.


Endocrine System

Function- Collection of glands that regulate and produce hormones in regulate metabolism growth and development tissue and sexual function reproduction sleep mood.

Homeostasis- tendency towards a relatively stable equilibrium between independent elements.

Homeostasis role in endocrine system- integrates body activities and at the same time ensures the composition of body fluids and bathing the constant cells.

Negative Feedback- signaling things in the parathyroid glands rely on binding of calcium-sensitive receptors.

Type 1 Diabetes- The body no longer makes insulin or enough insulin because the bodies immune system has a test in destroyed the cells that make insulin.

Type 1 Diabetes- Pancreas keep up with the added Amanda by making more insulin over the pancreas can no longer make enough insulin when the blood sugar rises.


Immune System

The body system that defense from infections diseases important things and fights cancer cells.

Pathogen- disease / illness to host just as an infectious particle capable of do you think a disease.

Active Immunity- resistance by production of antibodies in response to an exposure to antigen, pathogen, or a vaccine.

Passive Immunity- Transfer of antibody from body to the other as pronum to son.

Antigen- triggers immune response stimulating production of antibody that specifically reacts to it.

Antibody- blinds to particular antigen which it neutralises.

viruses are a different kind of bacteria and are not affected by the same kind of antibiotics.

HIV in immune system: Target T cells and as host that virus and needs in order to replicate HIV infected T-cell with viral RNA.


Circulatory System

Function- Organ system transporting nutrients, gases, blood cells and hormones through the body, through a network of cells.

Relationship between structure and function of arteries, capillaries, and veins- They're all circulated through the body by the contractions of the heart.

Route of blood through heart- Enters through right side of heart through 1st superior and ending part of the inferior vena cavae which enters part the right atrium. From there is flows through tricuspid value into right ventricle. From there it goes into pulmonary artery. in lungs. Blood returns to heart. Via pulmonary veins, From there the blood enters into the left atrium through mitral and into left ventricle, and flows through aortic valve into aorta and systematic circulation takes place.

Composition of blood- 55% plasma 1% leukocytes, 45% erythrocytes

Description of disorders-

Aortic Aneurysm: Major blood Vessel carrying blood away from the heart. Weakening of blood vessels.

Atherosclerosis: Hardening of arteries developed when plaque builds up. Smoking and high blood pressure lead to major risk. Symptoms are abdominal and if there's symptoms, they're back chest or abdominal pain.

Skeletal System

Provides vital functions such as support, movement, protection, blood cell protection, calcium storage and endocrine regulation.

Bones- Provide support and framework for attachment of muscles and other tissues. Enable movement.

Ligaments- Three types tough, fibrous tissue that connects bones. Primary function = Joint protection

Muscles- Movement, only tissue that can connect and move parts of the body also maintenance of body posture and position.

Tendons- Connects muscle to bone.

Nerves- Responsible for relaying electrical messages to cells and tissues in other organs.

Description of disorders-

Arthritis- Wear and tear of bones and joints over time. Symptoms include pain in the wrists, ankles, back, neck while sitting or moving; sharp pains. Treatment- Pain medication

Scoliosis- Pain in the back, leaning, muscle spasms. Treatment- Spinal fusion, back brace, physical exercise, stretching.

Excretory System

The excretory system creates waste from the body. Excretion is the process of discharging waste from the blood, tissue and organs.

Description of Disorders-

Nephritis- inflammation of one or both kidneys. Causes could be inflammation of the glomerulus. Symptoms include smelly urine, pain in lower abdomen, blood in urine. Treatments are antibiotics however when caused by lupus, steroids may also have to be used.

Kidney Stones- Calcium deposits and can be seen in nephrons. Causes are increase in salt and mineral levels and that of other substances in urine. Another reason could be heredity. Symptoms include vomiting, nausea, painful ruin, fever or chills, bloody/smelly prince, back/side pain. Treatment includes painkillers for alleviation of pain, reduced size of stones pass easier and consuming lots of fluids help pass stones.

Digestive System

Function- Convert food into simpler absorbable nutrients to keep the body functions.

Reason digestion of large food is essential- vital process for human body. More nutrients in the body.

Need for enzymes- Carbs broken down by amylase; proteins broken down by protease; fats broken down by lipase.

Disorders in the digestive system-

Barrett's Esophagus- Tissue lines up with intestines and replaces that tissue lining of the esophagus .

Irritable Bowel Syndrom- Group of symptoms including pain discomfort in the bowel movement patterns that occur together not in a disease.

Parts of the system-

Mouth- Chews and swallows food

Esophagus- Carry to eat

Stomach- Breaks down protein

Small Intestine- Absorbs nutrients

Large Intestine- Forming, and storing waste matter

Anus- Where solid waste comes out.

Liver- Elimination of substances

Pancreas- Secrets insulin and glucagon (regulates blood pressure)

Gallbladder- Stores bile and store until needed for digestion.

Muscular System

Responsible for movement of the human body. Attracted to the skeletal system and makes up approximately half of a persons body weight.

Types of muscle are smooth, cardiac, and skeletal.

Description of disorders-

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- Where control muscle cells are lost. Symptoms include difficulty walking, weakness in legs muscle cramps and twitching. Causes are inheritances about 50%. There is no cure yet however some prescription drugs help with the symptoms.

Myasthenia Gravis- Weakness of skeletal muscles. Causes are antibodies blocking essential hormones. Symptoms include Eye muscle weakness and eyelid drooping. There is no cure but medications thymectomy and plasmapheresis help.