Unit 2 Vocabulary

Taylor Rust Per.6

American Industrial Revolution

The American Industrial Revolution was the change from rural to urban city life in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Many positives and negatives came out of this change.

Laissez Faire

When the government does not bother businessmen. "Hands off" Government.

Robber Barons wanted the government to follow Laissez Faire.


Merged businesses without violating laws against owning other companies. A loop-hole to having a monopoly.

Robber Baron

A businessmen who used ruthless business tactics. They often stole from the public, abused the law, mistreated their workers, and bribed government officials. Some examples of Robber Barons are John D Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie.

Vertical Integration

This is when a company owns all of the different businesses on which it depends for its operation. Instead of paying other businesses for services, they already own aspects they need.

Horizontal Integration

This is when a company takes over or buys out a company they are competing with in order to gain market share. This eventually leads to monopoly.

Political Machine

An informal political group designed to keep power. They provided immigrants with essential services in return for votes. William "Boss" Tweed is an example of a political machine.

Ellis Island

A small island in New York Harbor. This place served as a processing center for most immigrants coming to America. From 1892 - 1924 an estimated 17 million European immigrants passed through Ellis Island.


Most immigrants in the working class lived here after arriving to America. It was a dark and crowded multi-family apartment.

Ethnic Enclaves

Where immigrants would try to preserve their language and religion.


Preference for native-born people who wanted to limit immigration. Often disrespected the incoming immigrants on the dock.

Glided Age

Meaning a layer of glitter over a cheap base. The industrial revolution period was known as the Glided Age, it was a term referred by Mark Twain.

Social Darwinism

A social theory that attempts to adapt Charles Darwin's natural selection principles and apply it to society.


The process in which immigrant school children were taught the English language as well as culture. The purpose of this was to assimilate ethnic immigrant groups into the dominant culture.

Populist Party

Group of farmers who wanted more political power. They deemed they needed more power in the political issue because they had too much overproduction, railroads were taking advance of them, and the taxes.

Gospel of Wealth

Carnegie wrote this essay. He believed that wealthy Americans had the responsibility to donate money to fourth social progress. Carnegie also believed the wealthy should have higher tax burden.

Social Gospel Movement

Religious reformers strove to improve conditions in the cities according to the biblical ideas of charity and justice.


A political movement that crossed party lines, which believed that industrialism and urbanization had created many social problems and that government should take more active role in dealing with these problems.


American journalists who wrote about the abuses and corruption in society.

John D Rockefeller

An American businessman who established Standard Oil, which controlled some 90% of the U.S. refineries and pipelines by the early 1880s.

Andrew Carnegie

Scottish immigrant who amassed a fortune in the steel industry. Made his first fortune by the time he was in his early 30s.

JP Morgan

One of the most powerful bankers of his era. He financed railroads and helped organize U.S. Steel, General Electric and other major corporations. Used his influence to stabilize American financial markets during several economic crises.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Self-made multi-millionarie. He was a shipping and railroad tycoon. He had a reputation for being fiercely competitive and ruthless.

Thomas Edison

An inventor and business man. He is the inventor of the phonograph, the light bulb, and the kinetoscope.

Henry Ford

He perfected the assembly line and made the first affordable car.

Samuel Gompers

American cigar maker who became a labor union leader. He was the American Federation of Labor's (AFL) first leader.

William "Boss" Tweed

He was the leader of New York City's corrupt Tammany Hall political organization during the 1860s and early 1870s.

Upton Sinclair

An American author that wrote nearly 100 books.

Jacob Riis

Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer.

Theodore Roosevelt

American statesman, author, explorer, and reformer. He was the 26th president of the United States.

William Taft

An American jurist and statesman who served as both the 27th president of the United States and later the 10th Chief Justice of the United States.

Meat Inspection Act

Act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food. Also to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions.

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

A regulatory agency in the U.S. created by the interstate commerce act of 1887.

Children's Bureau 1912

A federal agency organized under the United States Department of Health and Human Services Administration for children and families.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

A federal statute in the history of United States anti-trust law passed by Congress in 1890.

16th Amendment

Income Tax. Amendment that gives Congress the power to collect taxes on income.

17th Amendment

Amendment that allowed the popular selection of the United States Senators by the people of the United States.

18th Amendment

The amendment that banned the sale and drinking of alcohol in the U.S.

19th Amendment

The amendment that guaranteed all American women the right to vote.