Geography of Ancient China

By: Lucas Briar

Rivers/Water of Ancient China

The major rivers of China are the Chang Jiang (3900m.), or called the Yangtze, and the Haung He (3000m.), also called the Yellow River. In between these major rivers is the North China Plain which is the center of civilization in ancient China. The Haung He is also called the Yellow River because the clay inside the river turns yellow and blows downstream. The Haung He is the second longest river in the world and is the main source of fertile soil. The inland river system makes up 36% of the total land. The Tarim River is the longest inland river in China. China is bordered by the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. China also has really good harbors.
Yellow River - Wild China - BBC

Mountain Ranges/Plateaus of Ancient China

The mountain ranges in China are the Pamir, the Tian Shan, and the Himalayas. These mountain ranges are all on the western border of China. 2/3 of China are mountains and deserts. The highest mountain is Mt. Everest in the Himalayas which is also nicknamed Qomolangma Feng. The Himalayas are 2400km. long and have 10 of the highest peaks in the world. They are also very rugged. The largest plateau is in China and is called the Tibet-Quinghai Plateau. One of the lowest surfaces is also located in China -154 ft. below sea level and is called the Turfan Depression.


The climate of China can vary from sandstorms where you have to wrap yourself in a blanket and hope for the best, or very very cold temperatures. The winters can be cold and snowy and the summers could be very hot and dry. Typhoons bring heavy rains in the southern part of China. The south temperatures are usually pretty mild. The climate is tropical in the south and subarctic in the north. This is because of how close China is to the equator.

Deserts of Ancient China

The 2 deserts in China are the Gobi Desert and the Takliman Desert. The Takliman Desert is one of the largest Deserts. The Gobi Desert is the driest desert in the world. The Takliman Sea of Death because of its boiling days and its freezing nights. The Takliman Desert is cut off from Asian monsoons and Arctic storms with only 10mm. of precipitation a year. Deserts make up 13% of the surface area of China.