Manic-Depressive Disorder

Tiffany Vilaysom

Bipolar Disorder

* There are several types of Bipolar Disorder:

  • Bipolar I Disorder
  • Bipolar II Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
  • Cyclothymic Disorder/Cyclothymia
  • Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder

Core Symptoms

*Generally described as unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out daily tasks.

* Several types of mood episodes:

  • Manic - overly happy.
  • Depressive - long period(s) of sadness.
  • Mixed
  • Hypomania
  • Severe
Big image


* Usually several factors acting all at once.

  • Genetics
  • Abnormal Brain Development/Structure

Communicative Errors in Signal Transduction Pathways

*Noradrenergic System:

  • Major metabolite MHPG levels differ.
  • Altered sensitivity of α2- and β2- adrenergic receptors.

*Serotonergic System:

  • Reduced levels of 5-HIAA associated with certain groups.
  • Decreased radioligand binding to the serotonin transporter in depression.
  • Decrease in binding on 5-HT1A receptor.

*Dopaminergic System:

  • Deficiency in dopamine systems.
  • Increased binding in VMAT2.

* Cholinergic System:

  • Decrease in cholinergic tone during manic phase.

* Gs/cAMP Generating Signaling Pathway:

  • Increased G-protein (Gas) levels.
  • Increases in adenylyl cyclase.
  • Elevated Ga5 protein and mRNA levels.

* Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway:

  • Ratio of PKC activity = increased in manic phase.
  • Enhanced PKC translocation.

* Calcium Signaling:

  • Abnormalities present.
  • Elevation in resting and active Ca2+ levels.
Big image



  • Mood stabilizers like lithium (Eskalith/Lithobid).

* Psychotherapy:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

* Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

* Herbal Supplements

Big image

Current Direction of Research

* New medications and treatments are being developed.

* Use of ketamine.

* More research being done to map “our current understanding of the brain circuitry that is involved in behavioral and cognitive functioning”.

Works Cited

Bezchlibnyk, Y., & Young, L. (2002, March 1). The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from

Bipolar Disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2015, from

Manji, H., Quiroz, J., Payne, J., Singh, J., Lopes, B., Viegas, J., & Zarate, C. (2003, October 1). The Underlying Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from