* There are several types of Bipolar Disorder:
- Bipolar I Disorder
- Bipolar II Disorder
- Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
- Cyclothymic Disorder/Cyclothymia
- Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder
*Generally described as unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out daily tasks.
* Several types of mood episodes:
- Manic - overly happy.
- Depressive - long period(s) of sadness.
* Usually several factors acting all at once.
- Abnormal Brain Development/Structure
Communicative Errors in Signal Transduction Pathways
- Major metabolite MHPG levels differ.
- Altered sensitivity of α2- and β2- adrenergic receptors.
- Reduced levels of 5-HIAA associated with certain groups.
- Decreased radioligand binding to the serotonin transporter in depression.
- Decrease in binding on 5-HT1A receptor.
- Deficiency in dopamine systems.
- Increased binding in VMAT2.
* Cholinergic System:
- Decrease in cholinergic tone during manic phase.
* Gs/cAMP Generating Signaling Pathway:
- Increased G-protein (Gas) levels.
- Increases in adenylyl cyclase.
- Elevated Ga5 protein and mRNA levels.
* Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway:
- Ratio of PKC activity = increased in manic phase.
- Enhanced PKC translocation.
* Calcium Signaling:
- Abnormalities present.
- Elevation in resting and active Ca2+ levels.
- Mood stabilizers like lithium (Eskalith/Lithobid).
- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
* Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
* Herbal Supplements
Current Direction of Research
* New medications and treatments are being developed.
* Use of ketamine.
* More research being done to map “our current understanding of the brain circuitry that is involved in behavioral and cognitive functioning”.
Bezchlibnyk, Y., & Young, L. (2002, March 1). The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from https://ww1.cpa-apc.org/Publications/Archives/CJP/2002/march/inReviewBipolar.pdf
Bipolar Disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2015, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml
Manji, H., Quiroz, J., Payne, J., Singh, J., Lopes, B., Viegas, J., & Zarate, C. (2003, October 1). The Underlying Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525098/