Manic-Depressive Disorder

Tiffany Vilaysom

Bipolar Disorder

* There are several types of Bipolar Disorder:

  • Bipolar I Disorder
  • Bipolar II Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
  • Cyclothymic Disorder/Cyclothymia
  • Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder

Core Symptoms

*Generally described as unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out daily tasks.


* Several types of mood episodes:

  • Manic - overly happy.
  • Depressive - long period(s) of sadness.
  • Mixed
  • Hypomania
  • Severe
Big image

Causes

* Usually several factors acting all at once.

  • Genetics
  • Abnormal Brain Development/Structure

Communicative Errors in Signal Transduction Pathways

*Noradrenergic System:

  • Major metabolite MHPG levels differ.
  • Altered sensitivity of α2- and β2- adrenergic receptors.


*Serotonergic System:

  • Reduced levels of 5-HIAA associated with certain groups.
  • Decreased radioligand binding to the serotonin transporter in depression.
  • Decrease in binding on 5-HT1A receptor.


*Dopaminergic System:

  • Deficiency in dopamine systems.
  • Increased binding in VMAT2.


* Cholinergic System:

  • Decrease in cholinergic tone during manic phase.


* Gs/cAMP Generating Signaling Pathway:

  • Increased G-protein (Gas) levels.
  • Increases in adenylyl cyclase.
  • Elevated Ga5 protein and mRNA levels.


* Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway:

  • Ratio of PKC activity = increased in manic phase.
  • Enhanced PKC translocation.


* Calcium Signaling:

  • Abnormalities present.
  • Elevation in resting and active Ca2+ levels.
Big image

Treatments

*Medications:

  • Mood stabilizers like lithium (Eskalith/Lithobid).


* Psychotherapy:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).


* Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)


* Herbal Supplements

Big image

Current Direction of Research

* New medications and treatments are being developed.


* Use of ketamine.


* More research being done to map “our current understanding of the brain circuitry that is involved in behavioral and cognitive functioning”.

Works Cited

Bezchlibnyk, Y., & Young, L. (2002, March 1). The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from https://ww1.cpa-apc.org/Publications/Archives/CJP/2002/march/inReviewBipolar.pdf



Bipolar Disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2015, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml



Manji, H., Quiroz, J., Payne, J., Singh, J., Lopes, B., Viegas, J., & Zarate, C. (2003, October 1). The Underlying Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525098/