Skeletal/Muscular System

The function of the skeletal system is to hold the body upright and to produce red blood cells

Each Object

Bones Produce blood cells Red Marrow Produce red and white blood cells Yellow Marrow Consists of stored fat

Joints Found where two (2) bones meet

Cartilage Surrounds the end on bone to prevent grinding upon another bone

Ligaments Tough band of tissue attaching one bone to another

Tendons Thick bands of tissue connecting muscle to bone

Nerves feel things


Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder in which bones break easily. Sometimes the bones break for no known reason. OI can also cause weak muscles, brittle teeth, a curved spine, and hearing loss. OI is caused by one of several genes that aren't working properly. When these genes don't work, it affects how you make collagen, a protein that helps make bones strong.

treatments Rodding Surgery(Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation)

Living with it

  • Be well informed about OI.
  • Develop an effective support network.
  • Resolve the social and emotional needs of the person with OI and their family members as they arise.
  • Include interesting and fun activities in your schedule.

Although the number of people affected with OI in the United States is unknown, the best estimate suggests a minimum of 20,000 and possibly as many as 50,000.'

  • Symptoms
  • Blue tint to the whites of their eyes (blue sclera)
  • Multiple bone fractures.
  • Early hearing loss (deafness)

Bone Cancer

  • Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and 19. It is more common in the knee and upper arm.

Treatment options

  • Abitrexate (Methotrexate)
  • Cosmegen (Dactinomycin)
  • Dactinomycin
  • Denosumab
  • Doxorubicin Hydrochloride
  • Folex (Methotrexate)
  • Folex PFS (Methotrexate)
  • Methotrexate
  • Methotrexate LPF (Methotrexate)
  • Mexate (Methotrexate)
  • Mexate-AQ (Methotrexate)
  • Xgeva (Denosumab)

Prevalence The number of new cases of bone and joint cancer was 0.9 per 100,000 men and women per year. The number of deaths was 0.4 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2007-2011 cases and deaths.


  • one pain
  • Swelling and tenderness near the affected area
  • Broken bone
  • Fatigue
  • Unintended weight loss
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The Muscular System produces voluntary movement; circulates blood, moves food through digestive system.
  • An action potential from a motor neuron triggers the release of Ca2+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • Calcium ions expose the myosin heads by binding to a blocking molecule (troponin complexed with tropomyosin) and causing it to move
  • The myosin heads form a cross-bridge with actin binding sites
  • ATP binds to the myosin heads and breaks the cross-bridge
  • The hydrolysis of ATP causes the myosin heads to change shape and swivel - this moves them towards the next actin binding site
  • The movement of the myosin heads cause the actin filaments to slide over the myosin filaments, shortening the length of the sarcomere
  • Via the repeated hydrolysis of ATP, the skeletal muscle will contract
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears down over time.


  • Pain. Your joint may hurt during or after movement.
  • Tenderness. Your joint may feel tender when you apply light pressure to it.
  • Stiffness. Joint stiffness may be most noticeable when you wake up in the morning or after a period of inactivity.
  • Loss of flexibility. You may not be able to move your joint through its full range of motion.
  • Grating sensation. You may hear or feel a grating sensation when you use the joint.
  • Bone spurs. These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard lumps, may form around the affected joint.

Osteoarthritis symptoms may be helped by certain medications, including:

  • Acetaminophen.Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) can relieve pain, but it doesn't reduce inflammation. It has been shown to be effective for people with osteoarthritis who have mild to moderate pain. Taking more than the recommended dosage of acetaminophen can cause liver damage.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs may reduce inflammation and relieve pain. Over-the-counter NSAIDs include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen (Aleve, others). Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription. NSAIDs can cause stomach upset, ringing in your ears, cardiovascular problems, bleeding problems, and liver and kidney damage. They should not be used by people over 65 years of age and those who have stomach bleeding. Topical NSAIDS have fewer side effects and may relieve pain just as well.
Overall, in the United States, OA affects 13.9% of adults aged 25 years and older and 33.6% (12.4 million) of those 65+ in 2005; an estimated 26.9 million US adults in 2005 up from 21 million in 1990 (believed to be conservative estimate).2
Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interfere with the production of proteins needed to form healthy muscle.

  • Frequent falls
  • Difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position
  • Trouble running and jumping
  • Waddling gait
  • Walking on the toes
  • Large calf muscles
  • Muscle pain and stiffness
  • Learning disabilities
  • Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, which can help improve muscle strength and delay the progression of certain types of muscular dystrophy. But prolonged use of these types of drugs can cause weight gain and weaken bones, increasing fracture risk.
  • Heart medications, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or beta blockers, if muscular dystrophy damages the heart.
An estimated 1 of every 5,600 to 7,700 males 5 through 24 years of age had DBMD. That is approximately equal to a prevalence of 1.3 to 1.8 per 10,000 males 5 through 24 years of age in the four states

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