Breast Cancer

Maddie, Angela, and Katrina

History of Breast Cancer

Cancer have existed since the beginning of time due to the shuffling of genes in our ancestors' time to help them adapt to the harsh living condition, such as the Ice Age. However these mutations evolved into something unimaginable that affect millions of women and men around the globe-breast cancer.
Ancient Egyptians were the first to note the disease in the papyri with descriptions such as, "Bulging tumors of the breast that has no cure." Some brief theory of breast cancer were developed during the Ancient Egyptians era such as how breast cancer came from the excess of black bile that give the 17th and 18th century scientists the chance to prove against this theory.From there, they came up with the first treatment method, the removal of tumors by surgery, and follow up by radiation and chemotherapy ("History of Breast Cancer").


-Angela

All About Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is an uncontrolled growth of breast cells in the lobules that make milk and thin tubes called ducts that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple ("Breast Cancer"). The cancer was resulted from mutations in the genes that throw the breast cells' orderly division off track and eventually formed an "out of the ordinary" known as tumor. There are two types of tumors- benign and malignant- and one of the two may be the outcome from the unsuccessful division process of mitosis that leads to the forming of these tumors. Benign tumors are not considered dangerous and if left unchecked, it won't spread to other parts of the body, although it have the potential to turn cancerous, or malignant. However, the term "breast cancer" would most likely refers to a malignant tumor that has developed in the breast, and will continue to double in number and metastasize, or spread, if treatment is not seek early ("What Is Breast Cancer? | Breastcancer.org").



-Angela

Symptoms & Diagnosis

Every year, more aggressive and invasive types of breast cancers are found in women and men, however knowing the possible symptoms may lead to more effective treatment and increase the success rate of fighting through this cancer.


Similar to most cancers, there will be no symptoms in the early stages of breast cancer.


  • A lump in the breast or underarm that persists after your menstrual cycle. This is often the first apparent symptom of breast cancer, however it can also be a benign tumor. Lumps associated with breast cancer are usually painless and not visible until the later stages ("WebMD Breast Cancer Center: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Genes, Staging, Tests, and Treatments").
  • Swelling in the armpit.
  • Pain or tenderness in the breast. Although lumps are usually painless, pain or tenderness can be a sign of breast cancer.
  • A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast, which may indicate a tumor that cannot be seen or felt.
  • Any change in the size, contour, texture, or temperature of the breast. A reddish, pitted rash like surface like the skin of an orange could be a sign of advanced breast cancer.
  • A change in the nipple, such as a nipple retraction, dimpling, itching, a burning sensation, or ulceration.
  • Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody, or of other color.
  • A marble-like area under the skin.
  • An area that is distinctly different from any other area on either breast, that may be its texture, size, shape, temperature, and skin condition in that area ("WebMD Breast Cancer Center: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Genes, Staging, Tests, and Treatments").


-Angela

Stages of Breast Cancer

The staging for breast cancer can accelerate differently for many people due to their lifestyle before the cancer develop, genetic factors, how strong their immune system tries to fight against the malignant tumor(s), and how aggressive their cancer can be

("Breast Cancer Stages :: The National Breast Cancer Foundation").



-Angela

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Stage 0 and 1

The cancer is evident due to the abnormal growth of cells in Stage 1 in the milk ducts of the breast, however the tumors has not spread or can be felt. The tumors would appear as a peanut-sized abnormal clump of tissues under the mammogram. This very beginning phase is known as "non-invasive." Breast cancer victims have the highest rate of surviving at this stage if treatment is seek immediately after discovery ("Stages 0 & 1 :: The National Breast Cancer Foundation").

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Stage 2A and 2B

The tumors are growing in size and are inching its way closer to the lymph nodes, but it is still located in the breast area. Stage 2 is divided into 2A and 2B due to the growth rate of the tumors and if it has spread to nearby lymph nodes ("Stage 2 :: The National Breast Cancer Foundation").

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STAGE 3A, 3B, AND 3C

It's considered an advance stage of cancer where the tumors have spread to distant lymph nodes, muscles, and can be found in the chest wall. Most symptoms usually start to show up in Stage 3B, such as swelling, inflammation, or ulcers ("Stage 3 :: The National Breast Cancer Foundation").

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Stage 4

Stage 4 is note as the final and most of the time an incurable stage of breast cancer, since the cancerous tumors has already spread to distant organs. Malignant tumors can be found in the lungs, bones, liver and brain. Not much is known about stage four yet due to the limited knowledge about the how cancer started in the first place, and the limited medical treatment available for breast cancer once it has traveled to other parts of the body.Treatments may help prolong breast cancer patients' life for about a few years as long as the patients can adapt to the treatment options ("Stage 4 :: The National Breast Cancer Foundation").

Genetic risk factors

The hereditary and genetic factors only contribute to about 5%-10% of getting the breast cancer's genes to get pass down to offspring,("Breast Cancer Risk Factors: Genetics") however it definitely increase the risk of developing the disease some time in one's lifetime by a notch.
Two of the most commonly inherited genes for breast cancers are BRCA1 and BRCA2 located on chromosome 17 and 13 ("Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer"). These BRCA genes are inside all of us with the job to repair cells and managing breast cells' normal growth. Until one day, the sudden mutation in these genes bring out the abnormalities in BRCA. The BRCA genes would then stop carrying out its normal functions leading to an increase in getting breast cancer ("Breast Cancer Risk Factors: Genetics").


-Angela

Lower your risk

Genetic factors including your gender, your age, and history of cancer within your family cannot be change. However lifestyle and environmental factors plays a major role in the advancement in the type of breast cancer one can develop. Controlling the environmental risk factors for developing breast cancer is completely in our hands and preventable with just small step toward a healthier lifestyle and choices.


  • Exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight

    ("Lower Your Risk").


  • Modify your fast food and alcohol consumption

    ("Lower Your Risk").


  • Cut out smoking from your life

    ("Lower Your Risk").



  • Being a woman is the biggest risk factors into becoming breast cancer victims. Although men do develop breast cancer, but the chance of that happening is less than 1% ("Breast Cancer Risk Factors: Being a Woman").
  • Similar to other types of cancer, the risk of developing breast cancer goes up as one get older. "According to the American Cancer Society, about 1 out of 8 invasive breast cancers develop in women younger than 45. About 2 our of 3 invasive or more aggressive breast cancers are found in women 55 or older," ("Breast Cancer Risk Factors: Being a Woman").
  • In a recent study, White women are more likely to develop breast cancer than any other races, while African American women are more likely to develop more aggressive and invasive types of breast cancer at a young age and die from it ("Breast Cancer Risk Factors: Race/Ethnicity").


-Angela

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("Race, Ethnicity, and Breast Cancer | Susan G. Komen®" )

Treatment Options

There are five common ways to treat breast cancer. These include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Surgery is the most common treatment among people who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Some examples of surgeries are a mastectomy or a lumpectomy. Radiation therapy is a a treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or to keep them from growing. External radiation therapy is the therapy used for breast cancer. External radiation therapy is when a machine outside the body is used to send radiation toward the cancer. Chemotherapy is when drugs are used to stop the growth of cancer cells. The drugs are taken by mouth or are injected, and then travel through the bloodstream to reach the cancer cells. Hormone therapy is a treatment that removes hormones or blocks their actions and stops cancer cells from growing. Targeted therapy is the use of drugs or in some cases other substances to directly attack cancer cells and avoid harming normal cells.


"Breast Cancer Treatment." National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health, 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 06 Nov. 2015.

- Katrina

Cost

Breast cancer treatment is usually paid for by insurance. Although, if a patient does not have insurance, the costs can build up. Overall the cost of treatment for breast cancer is usually somewhere around $100,000 and can range all the way up to $300,000. Most patients with breast cancer receive surgery and a mastectomy can cost anywhere from$15,000 to $50,000 and a lumpectomy can cost anywhere from $17,000 to $35,000. Chemotherapy can cost anywhere between $10,000 and $100,000, with the average cost for a single treatment $7,000 to $40,000.


"How Much Does Breast Cancer Treatment Cost? - CostHelper.com." CostHelper. CostHelper, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.

- Katrina

Side Effects

Long Term side effects, also known as late effects, include inflammation of the lung due to chemotherapy and radiation, heart failure, blood clots, premature menopause, and second cancer.


"Breast Cancer Treatment." National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health, 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 06 Nov. 2015.
- Katrina

NEW RESEARCH TREATMENT OPTIONS (CLINICAL TRIALS)

A new research treatment option is high dose chemotherapy with a stem cell transplant. This treatment option is a way to give high doses of chemotherapy and replace blood-forming cells that are lost during the cancer treatment. The stem cell will be removed from the patient and then after chemotherapy is done the stem cells are infused back into the patient.


"Breast Cancer Treatment." National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health, 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 06 Nov. 2015.

- Katrina

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Breast Cancer Research Foundation

The Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF) is a nonprofit organization whose goal is to find a cure and prevention for breast cancer. They pride themselves in funding for advances in genetics, treatment, and prevention (Lauder). They have raised over half a billion dollars towards breast cancer research and are continuing to raise more money every year.


“Our goal is to accelerate the breakthroughs bringing us closer to a cure to speed up the progress that will improve survivorship and quality of life for breast cancer patients today.” – Myra J. Biblowit, President & CEO


-Maddie

http://www.bcrfcure.org/about

Why we need YOUR support?

Breast cancer can not be taken down alone. With the help of people everywhere donating towards cancer research, the end of breast cancer could be drawing near. With around 22 out of 100,000 people dying per year along with breast cancer being the number one cause of cancer deaths, it is important to stop this disease before it takes any more lives (NIH).


-Maddie

http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html

"Show you care, be aware"

"Finding a cure starts with hope."
"Not just surviving, thriving."
"Join the fight, one step at a time."
"Show you care, be aware."

In Honor of...

Carren Burnell………………………………………………………...............……….Zaretsky

Jane Schwickrath………………………………………………………….....….……….Hankla

Janis Milsted……………………………………………………………………..…………Davis

Kim Turner………………………………………………………………………………….Wyatt

Lynn Bedard…………………………………….………………………………………….Davis

Patricia Manetta………………………………………………………………………...Maxwell

Patti McLendon……………………………....………………………………………McLendon

Peggy Stevens……………………..………………………………………………………Wyatt

Sherley Best………………………………………………………………………………….Best

Susan Brown……………………………………………………….............…………Summers

Tia Auguste…………..…………………………...………….…………………………..George

Discussion Questions

  1. Were you familiar with any of these organizations before? If not, would you be willing to participate and be a part of them now?
  2. Are you more inform about breast cancer now?
  3. What information did you learn from our smore?
  4. Who do you know that was affected by cancer?

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Maddie's Citations

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