Enska 403

health care

Translation from English to Icelandic


a) Icelandic (translation)

Öndunarfæri mannslíkamans er röð af líffærum sem bera ábyrgð á því að taka inn súrefni og anda frá sér koltvísýring. Líffærin sem bera mestu ábyrgðina á öndunarfærakerfinu eru lungun, sem framkvæma þessa breytingu á gasi þegar við öndum.

Rauðu blóðkornin safna súrefninu frá lungunum og bera þau út í líkamann þar sem þörf er á, samkvæmt American Lung Association.. Á meðan þessu ferli stendur fara rauðu blóðkornin og safna koltvísýring þar sem þau eru send aftur til lunganna og í kjölfarið af því fer koltvísýringur útúr líkamanum þegar við öndum út.

Mannslíkaminn þarf súrefni til þess að lifa. Minnkun á súrefni í líkamanum leiðir til súrefnisskorts samkvæmt MedLine Plus.. Þessi skilyrði geta verið banvæn; eftir sirka fjórar mínútur án súrefnis, byrja heilafrumur að deyja, samkvæmt NYU Langone Medical Center, sem getur leitt til heilaskemmdar og á endanum dauða.

Meðal öndun hjá manneskjum ræðst af aldri hennar. Ungabarn andar að meðaltali um 40 sinnum á hverri mínútu en getur hægt á öndun í um 20-40 sinnum á mínútu þegar það sefur, samkvæmt Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. .

Fyrir fullorðna, þá er meðal hlutfallið á öndun um 12-16 á hverri mínútu, samkvæmt Johns Hopkins Medicine.

b) English (original text)

The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe.

Red blood cells collect the oxygen from the lungs and carry it to the parts of the body where it is needed, according to theAmerican Lung Association. During the process, the red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide and transport it back to the lungs, where it leaves the body when we exhale.

The human body needs oxygen to sustain itself. A decrease in oxygen is known as hypoxia and a complete lack of oxygen is known as anoxia and, according to MedLine Plus. These conditions can be fatal; after about four minutes without oxygen, brain cells begin dying, according to NYU Langone Medical Center, which can lead to brain damage and ultimately death.

In humans, the average rate of breathing is dependent upon age. A newborn's normal breathing rate is about 40 times each minute and may slow to 20 to 40 times per minute when the baby is sleeping, according to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

For adults, the average resting respiratory rate for adults is 12 to 16 breaths per minute, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine

c)

I choose this text to translate because it was interesting and well-written by Kim Ann Zimmermann; furthermore The respiratory system is really fascinating. The methods I used for translating the text were; Snara.is, an Icelandic web dictionary, and my world list from the semester.

Translation from Icelandic to English

A) English (translation)

Fish oil is both healthy and good for your body, or that has at least been claimed until now. Results from a new British research claim that fish oils healing powers are highly overrated.

Scientist at University of East Anglia made an interesting research on fish oil and the British media displayed the results today. The scientists did about 90 scientific researches on quality and usefulness of fish oil for the human body and they’re result was that there was little if nothing indicated that omega-3-acids provided the protection of; spirit- and rheumatic diseases, cancer and not to forget heart- and vascular diseases. On the contrary some of the results claimed that people who have a risk of heart attacks should not take fish oil.

Jón Ögmundsson, quality manager at Lýsi hf. says that these results do not mean that fish oil is unhealthy. He says that the British scientists are first and foremost claiming that older research are not completely accurate out of statistical methods; furthermore he has no worries that people with heart conditions should not consume fish oil. Jón says that the proponents of the research are not claiming that people should stop consuming fish oil and fat fish, so it is tempting to draw conclusions that this British research is only showing that fish oil is maybe not as healthy like it was previously thought.

Jón consumes fish oil every day,

B) Icelandic (original text)

Blessað lýsið er bæði hollt og gott, eða því höfum við að minnsta kosti haldið fram til þessa. Niðurstöður nýrrar breskrar rannsóknar benda hins vegar til að lækningamáttur lýsisins sé stórlega ofmetinn.

Þessi athyglisverða rannsókn var unnin af vísindamönnum við University of East Anglia en breskir fjölmiðlar greindu frá niðurstöðum hennar í dag. Vísindamennirnir lögðust yfir hátt í níutíu rannsóknir á gæðum og gagnsemi lýsisins og er skemmst frá því að segja að þeir komust að þeirri niðurstöðu að fátt ef nokkuð benti í rauninni til að ómega-þrír fitusýrurnar veittu þá vörn gegn geð- og gigtarsjúkdómum, krabbameini svo ekki sé minnst á hjarta- og æðasjúkdóma. Þvert á móti benda sumar niðurstöðurnar til að fólk sem hætt er við hjartaáföllum eigi alls ekki að taka lýsi.

Jón Ögmundsson, gæðastjóri Lýsis hf. segir rannsóknina langt í frá þýða að lýsi sé óhollt. Hann bendir á að Bretarnir séu fyrst og fremst að draga fyrri rannsóknir í efa út frá tölfræðaðferðum og hann gefur lítið fyrir þau viðvörunarorð að hjartveikir eigi ekki að neyta lýsis. Jón segir ennfremur að formælendur rannsóknarinnar séu alls ekki að mæla gegn neyslu á lýsi og feitum fiski og því er freistandi að draga þá ályktun að breska rannsóknin sýni að lýsi sé hollt en bara ekki eins hollt og áður var talið.

Jón tekur sjálfur lýsi á hverjum degi.

c)

This article is about the benefits of consuming fish oil on daily bases. I choose this article because me and my family consume fish oil and it was rather interesting to read this article, not only because it affects me and my family but because it was also related to my interest’s which is the cardiac system. My methods on translating this article were to divide the article into peace’s and then use a dictionary for words that I didn’t quite remember how to translate into English.

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Arna Ómardóttir

Interview with Arna Ómardóttir

a) A paragraph about why you chose this person- profile

Arna Ómarsdóttir played soccer for Selfoss last summer; she went to med school in Denmark before the season finished. Her and me played in the defensive zone for Selfoss this summer; she is a great soccer player and a great friend. I choose to speak to Arna because she never gives up on her dreams and is a great role model.

b) Your questions in English

Tell me a little bit about yourself?
When did you decide to become a doctor?

Why did you want to become a doctor?

What would you be if you weren’t a doctor?

Do you think it is possible to work or be in an athletic team while you’re in med school?

Have your decided you’re specialty or where you are going to learn your specialty?

Where did you learn in Iceland? And did that school help you prepare for med school?

How do you like studying in another country?

How is you’re school like, did anything surprise you?

How do you think the health system in Iceland stands compared to other countries?


c) A summary of interview - profile

Arna is a 23-year-old medical student that lives in Copenhagen, Denmark. She grew up in Breiðholt Reykjavík with two older sisters and parents. Arna lived in Breiðholt

21 years until she decided to move to Alabama to study biology, majoring in pre-medical on a soccer scholarship. Before she went to Alabama she learned in Verzlunarskólinn, which she said helped her a lot because it was structured a lot like how they do it in Universities. They always had one big test in the end of each semester that counted the most, so she got pretty good at planning her time and reading a lot of material in a short time for the finals

Arna has played soccer since she was 7 years old, so when she got the opportunity to study for free in America while doing what she loved the most it was hard for her not to say yes. Arna decided to put her dream of becoming a doctor on hold and go to experience new things in a new place, new university and a new soccer team. Biology has always interested Arna and she loved reading about the human body and figure out how it works ever since she was a little girl so it wasn’t a question, Arna was going to become a doctor. Arna had also been working in home nursing for the past three summers and she feels it’s a great gift to be able to help people get better and healthy,

It’s hard to get into medical school so it’s important to have a back up plan so Arna could also see herself as engineering or something in that department; however after Arna got into medical school she didn’t have to worry she was going to become a doctor. On the other hand she had to make a life changing decision and stop playing soccer because she didn’t really have much spear time so that was a big change for Arna since she had played soccer for 16 years. Arna is still trying to get used to a new language and a new school so she doesn’t have the time to be on an actual team, she exercise almost every day, mostly run on her own and takes a two-hour Danish lessons twice a week so she has just enough time to focus on her studies. But Arna says that maybe when she gets better in Danish she will hopefully have the time to start playing soccer again.

When you get into med school the obvious question is what kind of a doctor do you want to become? Arna has always had a big interest in orthopaedics and working with athletes, but she says it will become clearer after she does her “verknám”. Studying in another country must be different then back home with all your friends and family but Arna is a positive minded and says that it’s a great experience for her to take on a new language; furthermore she loves it in Denmark, everything is so relaxed and comfortable; however she admits that it was hard at first because of the language. Arna loves the school she’s in and what surprised her most was how personal everything is, she has a good personal relationship with her teachers and its easy to get help from them, Arna started learning nursing in university of Iceland where she said that the teachers back home didn’t even know she was there; in addition she sais thath the health care system is terrible compared to Denmark, both for the doctors and the patients. In Denmark you newer have to pay for a doctors visit at the clinic and the minimal wages are much higher for the doctors. There need to be some serious improvements in the health care system in Iceland. Arna think’s that the Icelandic government needs to step up its game and think twice about doing all these budget costs in a place where the citizens need the most. On this word we say goodbye to this hard working woman and wish here best of luck.

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Ted-antibiotc

A) The video you chose
http://www.ted.com/talks/ramanan_laxminarayan_the_coming_crisis_in_antibiotics#t-409791


B) Summarise the main idea
Antibiotics were revolutionary for the human race. Alexander Flemming discovered antibiotics but they didn't start to be used until 12 years later when a police officer from oxford got infection. Now we got a new obstacle which is that we use antibiotics to much, then the drugs will stop working for everyone because the bacteria will grow resistant. Ramanan Laxminarayan a researcher compares antibiotics agains humans like the cheetahs against gazelles. Gazelles need to run very fast so the cheetahs wont get them; however cheetahs need meat to stay alive so they develop and begin to run faster so they can catch gazelles. In this case the humans are the Gazelles and the antibiotics are winning the run. Ramanan solution to this is that doctors and patients need to work together; doctors have to check if it is necessary for the patient to take antibiotics and then if it is necessary the patient needs to take the drugs right. Facts show that only 1 out of 20 takes penicillin right.


C) Explain why you chose this particular video

I choose this video because antibiotics affect everyone. this video was really educating and interesting and I recommend that everyone should watch this because it affect's our human race. My great grandmother died of pneumonia in 1939 only few years later antibiotics were started to being used on humans. if the antibiotics stop to work then flu, infections and pneumonia become fatal.

TEd- system that doesn't make mistakes?

A) The video you chose
http://www.ted.com/playlists/70/what_doctors_worry_about

B) Summarise the main idea

Physician Brian Goldman talks about that everyone can make a mistake and that it is important to talk about it. Medicine's culture of denial keeps doctors from telling and talk about they're mistakes. Brian talks about the guilt and shame that comes after making mistakes, his first mistake as a resident his patient died, that was very though on him and he was thinking about quitting, luckily he didn't because everybody makes mistake. Brian is now working on changing the way people look at mistakes in the medical system and why they should rather learn from it instead of run from it.


C) Explain why you chose this particular video

I was searching a new assignment when I saw a link which refereed to 12 doctors talking about what matters the most to them. It was very interesting listening to this lecture because this doctor opened up and told his story, I thought it showed courage since it is well known in this industry that people don't open up about they're mistakes.

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Brittany Maynard

TED- Let's talk about death

A) The video you chose
http://www.ted.com/playlists/70/what_doctors_worry_about


B) Summarise the main idea

Peter Saul, an emergency doctor talks about death in the 21 century. he compares death like a highway, 3/5 in miami die in ICU, what if ICU you could take a sideway out of the highway? ICU is seven times more stressful then dying anywhere else, it matters where you die not only for your but for your friends and family. What is also important is that if you get to sick have you chosen someone to make a decision for you? all these questions are important because at the end we are all going to die but it is important how we die.


C) Explain why you chose this particular video

I choose this video because I had read an article few weeks earlier about woman named Brittany Maynard, she had brain cancer that was untreatable. Brittany had decided when the time came that she wanted to control her own death by taking pills when se was ready to go. I was curious if this lecture would mention anything about this woman. Peter didn't talk about her but he did mention that he is against Euthanasia, Euthanasia refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. Although Peter thinks that people should be able to control something about they're death. I think that it is you're choice and if you have talked to psychologist and he evaluate that you are mentally stable then my opinion is that it is you're decision. nobody should have to suffer if they are dying anyway.