In 1218 Mongols, led by Genghis Khan. began ruling over Central Asia for 200 years. They destroyed many cities and irrigation systems.
The Soviet goverment took power after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Soviets drew new political boundaries that separated people and resources to weaken resistance. Central Asian countries were now called republics, but were fully under the control of the Soviets.
Lord Lytton- proposed that a rival British mission too, should be sent to Kabul and this was agreed in London
Lord Curzon- conservative statesman who helped the british take control of Central Asia