Integrating Writing Across the Content Areas
Why the term “Smuggling Writing?”
•Strategies for integrating (aka “smuggling,” “sneaking”) writing in all subject areas
•Reading and writing are reciprocal processes: practice in one leads to proficiency in the other...
•The more students read and write…..the higher their achievement scores
•Time-tested strategies with web 2.0 alternatives
•Scaffolded instruction: modeling to independent learning
•Student examples across grade levels and disciplines
Phased Transfer Model
Literacy and learning require active engagement on the part of learners but also scaffolding and modeling by teachers. Lev Vygotsky captured this in his theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The tools presented in Smuggling Writing include teacher modeling, student engagement, and the transfer of responsibility to enhance student learning.
Self-Selection, Choice, & Voice: Increase engagement, and motivation (Harmon, Hedrick, & Wood, 2005; Guthrie, 2007)
Avoid “drill and practice”: Deeper, richer understanding (Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002)
Multiple Exposures : Present in context before, during and after reading (Manzo, Manzo, & Thomas, 2006; McKeown, Beck, Omanson, & Pople, 1985; Nagy, 1988)
Contextual-Based Approaches: Use additional support material - pictures, streaming video, virtual tours, etc. (Chall & Snow, 1988; Graves, 1987)
Discussion & Collaboration: Increases engagement and levels of cognitive processing (Carlisle, Fleming, & Gudbrandsen, 2000; Stahl & Vancil, 1986)
Connect to Prior Knowledge: Morphemic analysis - prefixes, suffixes, or roots (Milligan & Ruff, 1990)
Activating Background Knowledge:
Shapes comprehension, predictive abilities, and enhances deep processing of text (Duke, Pearson, Strachan, & Billman, 2011).
Scaffolding Instruction for Independent Learning:
Demonstration, think alouds, and guided practice, internalizes strategic thinking (Beers, 2003; Cunningham & Allington, 2011; Harvey & Goudvis, 2007; Keene & Zimmerman, 2007; Walpole & McKenna, 2013).
Generating Questions and Mental Images
Creating images before, during and after reading enhances engagement (Gambrell & Koskinen, 2002)
Retelling, Summarizing & Synthesis
Self-recitation is the most powerful study technique available to improve recall (Duke & Martin, 2015)
Creating Strategic Readers and “Close” Reading:
Make connections, reconstruct and thoughtfully process content (Frey & Fisher, 2013; Paris, Lipscomb, & Wixson, 1983; Witt, 2015; Wolf & Barzillai, 2009).
Wide and Varied Reading of Complex Texts:
Reading often and a wide variety of complex texts increases student achievement (Donahue, Finnegan, Lutkus, Allen, & Campbell, 2001; Guthrie, 2004; Lapp, Wolsey, & Wood, 2015).
Discussion, Research, & Inquiry
Sociocultural theory views learning as an active process of meaning making that talk can push the boundaries of learning (Vygotsky, 1978).
Inquiry-based learning is an active process. Students learn through active collaboration that is particularly evident in science education (e.g., Herrenkohl, Tasker, & White, 2011; Minner, Levy, & Century, 2010) and is a cornerstone of science education reform (American Association for Advancement of Science, 1993).
Takes place across subject areas. Feature of learning in social studies (Li & Lim, 2008), mathematics (Dietz, 2013), and language arts (Mills & Jennings, 2011).
Requires teacher modeling and scaffolding. Teachers must provide extensive scaffolding as students learn these processes (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004; Eick, Meadows, & Balkcom, 2005).
Katie Stover Kelly